by Nigel J.T. Thomas.
This version ©2013, Nigel J.T. Thomas.
The final unexpanded version of this article was published in the Encyclopedia
of Consciousness (Volume 2, pp. 445-457), William P. Banks (Ed.), Oxford: Academic Press/Elsevier,
2009 (Both both print and online versions ©Elsevier,
2009). This expanded, web-only version, self-published online in January 2013, is based
upon the penultimate draft of the published version, but adds extensive citations and notes.
If you would like a PDF reprint of the article as published, please email me. Click here to view the version, that was previously available at this URL, i.e. the penultimate draft of the published version, as given here, but without the citations and note indices that have now been added on this page.
Defining Imagery: Experience or Representation?
Historical Development of Ideas about Imagery
Subjective Individual Differences in Imagery Experience
Theories of Imagery, and their Implications for Consciousness
Differences from the published version
As is common with commissioned pieces like this, there were some editorial restrictions on how this should be written and formatted. The title and topic were given to me, and if I had had my way I would not have restricted myself to just visual mental imagery, but would have tried to explicitly cover imagery in other sense modes too. I believe that all sensory modes of imagery are important in cognition and in our experience, and that our consciousness of imagery in all modes should, and can, be understood within the same theoretical framework. That said, however, visual imagery has been studied far more, and thus is better understood, than imagery in any other mode, so it is not inappropriate to make it the main focus of discussion.
But quite apart from this, the editorial policies of the Encyclopedia of Consciousness meant that not only was I held to a quite strict length limit, and unable to use footnotes (or italics, for some reason), but, more importantly, I was not permitted to give any citations within the text. In my opinion, the latter was an unfortunate and inappropriate restriction for an article dealing with this sort of controversial subject matter (I protested to the editorial staff, but to no avail). The "Further Reading" list that I was mandated to include in no way compensates for the lack of appropriate in-text citations (and, frankly, is not very satisfactory). This is because the literature explicitly devoted to the problems of understanding imagery as a conscious phenomenon is meager indeed. Most of the more important and influential ideas about the subject are not to be found in works principally or even largely concerned with the issue itself, but, rather, in brief passages, or sometimes just as implicit assumptions, within works whose main focus lies elsewhere. In my view, the published article would have been much more useful to readers if I had been able to provide copious citations. Because of this, I have added extensive citations to this web version of the article. I also include notes in which I justify, qualify, or further explain assertions made in the main text, but which I did not have the space to defend or elaborate upon appropriately in the version for publication (most of the citations are actually given in the footnotes). The indicies on this page (numerical, links in square brackets, thus:) are linked to the appropriate notes on a separate web page. All the added citations within the main text on this page appear in dark green, to distinguish them from the black text of the penultimate draft of the published version. Although the published version was peer reviewed (and this penultimate draft does not differ from it in any significant detail), the additional material here (notes and citations) has not been.
You should look up the citations in the Supplementary Bibliography, not in the Further Reading list (although in some cases the same work may appear in both lists). Cited works by Aristotle and Plato are not listed in the bibliography, but can be checked in any good modern edition of their works.
Note, also, that words in the text that are blue (but not underlined) will pop up a definition from the glossary when the mouse pointer is over them. Links to notes have been omitted from these pop-up glossary items, because they would be unclickable. However, the glossary also appears here at the end of the article, and I have added some notes to that version. In the version of the article published in the Encyclopedia of Consciousness, the glossary appeared at the beginning. - N.J.T.T. January, 2013.
For most people visual mental imagery is a common, frequent experience (Galton, 1880; Betts, 1909; Doob, 1972; Marks, 1999; Thomas, 2010 §1). We often recall past events, or imagine possible ones, by forming mental images. Our dreams may also consist largely of mental imagery. Indeed, many philosophers and psychologists have held that, together with immediate perceptual experience, imagery makes up the entirety of consciousness (although clearly not just visual imagery, but also imagery in other sense modes, especially inner speech, auditory or vocal-motor imagery of spoken words). If we are to fully understand consciousness, we will certainly need to understand mental imagery.
Philosophers have studied mental imagery for many centuries, experimental psychologists have studied it for well over a hundred years, and more recently it has attracted the attention of cognitive scientists and neuroscientists, but many basic questions still remain unresolved (Thomas, 2010). There is controversy not only over what cognitive and neural mechanisms are responsible for imagery, but also over its function (if any) in cognition. Some regard mental imagery (or some closely related notion, such as "perceptual symbols" or "image schemata") to be the necessary vehicle for all thought; some regard it as important only for certain types of cognitive task (such as judging spatial relationships); and yet others regard it as a functionally insignificant conscious epiphenomenon of the unconscious cognitive processes that really constitute our thinking.
Like percepts, mental images bear intentionality (J.T.E. Richardson, 1980; Harman, 1998; Thomas, 2010 §1.3). That is to say, they are always images (or percepts) of something or other, of some (real or imaginary) "object." (Some philosophers (e.g., Searle, 1992) regard intentionality and consciousness as very closely related phenomena.) However, unlike percepts, images occur in the absence of their object. You cannot perceive a cat when no cat is present, but you can imagine a cat (or any other perceptible thing) at any time. Furthermore, (mistakes aside) you cannot perceive a cat to be other than where and how it actually is, but, whenever you want to, you can imagine (i.e., form an image of) a cat as anywhere, or in any condition. Images thus seem well suited to function as mental representations, allowing us to think of things as they currently are not, and thus to recall the past, plan for the future, fantasize about the unreal, and speculate about the unknown (cf. Addis et al., 2007; Szpunar et al., 2007). Since ancient times, this has generally been believed to be their cognitive function (Thomas, 2010).
Mental imagery is commonly defined as a form of experience: quasi-perceptual experience, experience that subjectively resembles the experience we have when we actually perceive something (Thomas, 1999b, 2003, 2010; cf.: McKellar, 1957; A.Richardson, 1969; J.T.E. Richardson, 1980; Finke, 1989; Ishai & Sagi, 1995). This implies that we are unlikely to be able to understand imaginal consciousness unless we understand perceptual consciousness (and perhaps vice-versa). Unfortunately, we do not yet have such an understanding (or, at least, one that is generally agreed upon). It also, however, implies that imagery is always and necessarily conscious: if something is not consciously experienced it cannot be mental imagery.
If, on the other hand, mental imagery is defined as being a form of mental representation, as some contemporary cognitive theorists suggest (e.g., Dennett, 1978; Block, 1983; Kosslyn, 1983; Kosslyn et al., 2006), the tight conceptual linkage between imagery and consciousness is broken, and it becomes conceivable that images (imaginal representations) might sometimes play a role in cognition without our being consciously aware of them. There is some evidence suggesting that this does indeed occur. For instance, experimental studies of verbal memory have found that nouns for which it is easy to think of a corresponding image (mostly words for concrete things, such as "dog," "ship," or "skyscraper") are more readily remembered than nouns for which it is difficult to think of an image (mostly abstractions, such as "truth," "nation," or "size"). However, this mnemonic effect of "imagability" seems to occur quite regardless of whether any relevant images are actually consciously experienced (or, at least, of whether the subjects report or recall experiencing them). One interpretation of this finding is that image representations may be spontaneously evoked by the concrete words, and may play a role in making these words more memorable, even when they do not rise to consciousness (Paivio, 1971, 1983, 1991).
Unlike the experiential conception of imagery with which we started, this representational conception suggests that we might be able to understand the nature and function of imagery without giving any attention to the fact that it is (at least sometimes) consciously experienced, and, in fact, most empirical and theoretical cognitive science research on imagery over the past few decades has proceeded on that assumption. The problem of the imaginal consciousness has, very largely, been ignored or set aside, while questions and controversies about its representational function (and, more recently, its neural instantiation) have been pursued enthusiastically. Furthermore, little if any attention has been given to the question of why we should be conscious of some of our image representations and (supposedly) not others (Baars, 1996).
But in any case, imagery probably cannot be satisfactorily understood purely in terms of its representational function. It is difficult or impossible to differentiate it from other forms of actual or possible mental representation, without either, on the one hand, begging some very controversial questions about its nature (about whether, for example, the relevant representations are somehow picture-like), or, on the other hand, appealing to the experiential conception of imagery. We could (and perhaps should) say that mental images are just those mental representations whose presence to mind has the potential to give rise to quasi-perceptual experiences. If so, however, the representational conception of imagery becomes conceptually dependent upon the experiential conception, and we cannot even begin truly to understand imagery unless we take its conscious nature into account (Thomas, 2010 §1.1).
Contemporary scientific controversies about mental imagery by no means turn entirely on matters of empirical fact. Disagreements turn largely upon conceptual issues, and upon differing ideas about what questions a theory of imagery most needs to answer. For example, is it crucial to consider the conscious and intentional nature of imagery when we seek to understand its cognitive mechanisms and functions, or are such considerations irrelevant and distracting? An awareness of the historical contexts from which the various contemporary research programs emerged is indispensable in understanding and adjudicating between such differing perspectives.
Scholars disagree as to whether ancient thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle, whose works contain the earliest known discussions of cognition, had anything like our modern concept of consciousness (see Thomas, 2006). However, it is clear that they did have the concept of mental imagery. Plato (Theatetus 191c,d) tentatively suggests that memory might be analogous to a block of wax into which our perceptions and thoughts stamp impressions (i.e., memory images); he also speaks, metaphorically, of an inner artist who paints pictures in the soul (Philebus 39b,c), and suggests that imagery may be involved in the mechanisms by which the rational mind exerts its control over the animal appetites (Timaeus 70d-72c).
However, it is Plato's successor Aristotle who provides the first systematic account of the role of imagery in cognition. In Aristotelian psychological theory, images play much the same role that the rather broader notion of mental representation plays in modern cognitive science. He held that mental images play an essential role in memory and thought: memory is the recall to mind of images of past events (see De Memoria et Reminiscentia, and Sorabji, 1972), and "It is impossible to think without an image" (De Memoria 450a 1; cf. De Anima 431a 15-20 & 432a 8-12). He also held that images underpin the meaningfulness of language (De Interpretatione 16a 5-9; De Anima 420b 29-32; Modrak, 2001), and play a key role in motivation (see De Anima 431a; also, McMahon 1973; Nussbaum, 1978). Were it not for mental images, he thinks, our speech would be empty noise, like coughing, and something could only excite our desire or fear while it was actually present to our senses. However, a mental image of the desired (or feared) thing enables us to think about it in its absence, and thus can sustain our motivation to obtain or avoid it at other times. Aristotle also posits a mental faculty, phantasia (usually translated as "imagination"), that is closely allied to (or perhaps even structurally identical with) the general faculty of sense perception, and is responsible for creating our mental images. Some suggest that this faculty amounts to his conception of consciousness (Modrak, 1981a; Kahn, 1966; see also Thomas, 2006).
In the wake of Aristotle's work, through later antiquity and the middle ages and into the era of modern philosophy, images continued generally to be seen as the principal vehicles of mental content (Thomas, 2010 §2.2 & sup., §2.3). In the work of Descartes and his successors the mind was explicitly understood as conscious, and the contents of consciousness were known as "ideas." Descartes himself seems to have at least two distinct concepts of "idea." What he calls a "clear and distinct idea" is a direct (perhaps propositional) mental grasp of the essence of something. It exists within consciousness itself, but is not an image. However, he also hypothesizes that when we see, imagine, or remember something previously seen, a pictorial image is formed deep within the brain (on the surface of the pineal gland) (Descartes, 1664). Such images, which he also quite explicitly calls ideas, do not exist within the mind as such (since, for Descartes, the conscious mind is immaterial, and distinct from the brain), but they are somehow presented to the mind and are the immediate causes of our conscious perceptual, memory, and imaginative experiences.
The British Empiricist philosophers' concept of "idea" seems to combine aspects of both of the notions found in Descartes. Although some scholars today question whether John Locke really believed ideas to be picture-like (e.g., Yolton 1956, 1996; Chappell, 1994; Lowe, 2005), it is natural to interpret him as thinking so (White, 1990; Ayers, 1991; Thomas, 2010 §2.3.3), and there is little room for doubt that his Empiricist successors, most notably Berkeley and Hume, conceived of ideas as images (Thomas, 2010 §2.3.3). Hume distinguishes "impressions" (i.e., percepts) from "ideas" that arise from the memory or the fancy, but he thinks that these differ only in the intensity with which we experience them, and he seems to conceive of all visual impressions and ideas as consciously experienced, picture-like images (Hume, 1740, 1748). Unlike the image-ideas of Descartes, however, for the Empiricists image-ideas are themselves entirely mental, and exist only inasmuch as we are conscious of them. Indeed, Hume's so called "bundle" theory of the mind suggests that these images actually constitute consciousness: the mind is nothing but a bundle of impressions and ideas (Hume, 1740 I.IV.VI).
Although it certainly had its critics, this Empiricist conception of mind continued to be influential up to, and beyond, the emergence of scientific psychology in the late 19th century. Pioneering experimental psychologists such as Wilhelm Wundt in Germany and William James in the U.S.A. thought of psychology as the study of consciousness and of the images (and emotional "feelings") that populate it (Thomas, 2010 §3.1 supps.). However, in the early 20th century a group of psychologists based in Würzburg in Germany, led by Oswald Külpe, reported that systematic introspection of thought processes under controlled laboratory conditions had led them to recognize that, as well as images, the mind also contains "imageless thoughts." These were, supposedly, conscious experiences (they had been discovered by introspection after all) and cognitive (they were evoked during reasoning, and were not merely emotional feelings), but, unlike imagery, they had no sensory character (Thomas, 2010 §3.2).
These claims proved extremely controversial. Some psychologists, such as Wundt, argued that the introspective methodology employed by the Würzburg psychologists was inherently unscientific and unreliable. Others, such as Edward Titchener, argued that competently conducted introspective investigations revealed no evidence of imageless thoughts (Titchener, 1909). The "imageless thought debate" that ensued proved to be irreconcilable. However, no party to this debate was claiming that thought in general is imageless; rather, the point at issue was whether any non-imaginal, but nevertheless conscious, thoughts actually exist. Although the factious arguments about this have long since died down, the issue has never truly been resolved (Thomas, 2010 §3.2). Some people still hold (although perhaps more often as an implicit assumption, rather than an explicitly defended view) that all the cognitive contents of consciousness have a sensory character, either as actual sensations or percepts, or else as mental images; others hold (again, often implicitly) that there are also non-sensory conscious thought contents. These are sometimes referred to as states of "fringe consciousness," and may be described as "feelings" of, for example, "familiarity," "unfamiliarity," "rightness," "wrongness," etc. (Mangan, 2001; Ellis, 1995).
Historically, however, the upshot of the deadlock of the imageless thought debate was a general discrediting of introspective methodologies in psychology, and even of the very idea that consciousness could be studied scientifically (Danziger, 1980; Thomas, 2010 §3.2 supp 1., supp. 2). John B. Watson argued that consciousness was an inherently unscientific notion, and, as a central plank of this argument, questioned the very existence of mental imagery (Watson, 1913a,b; Thomas, 1989; Berman & Lyons, 2007). He urged that psychology should be reconceived as the study of behavior rather than the study of consciousness, and the Behaviorist movement that he instigated came to dominate the field for the next several decades (very roughly, from about 1920 to about 1960) (Hebb, 1960; Gardner, 1987; Mandler, 2007). Few, if any, of the Behaviorist psychologists who succeeded Watson went quite as far as he did toward denying the reality of consciousness and imagery, but almost all of them, in practice, treated them as beyond the reach of science (Thomas, 2010 §3.2 supp. 2). During the same period, the rise of the analytical philosophy movement (with its emphasis on formal logic and language as the keys to understanding knowledge and the mind), and particularly the influence of Ludwig Wittgenstein, also led many philosophers to discount the significance of imagery, or simply to ignore it (Thomas, 2010 §3.3). The upshot was that neither imagery nor consciousness received much serious attention during the Behaviorist era (Holt, 1964; Haber, 1970; Paivio, 1971; Kessell, 1972; Neisser, 1972).
A revival of interest in imagery, however, was an important component of the cognitive psychology movement that challenged and eventually displaced Behaviorism as the dominant psychological paradigm in the 1960s and '70s (Gardner, 1987; Thomas, 2010 §4). New experimental methods for studying imagery were devised that did not depend on purely subjective introspection, and evidence emerged suggesting that imagery plays a large role both in memory (as shown mainly be experiments on verbal memory), and spatial thinking (as shown by experiments on "mental rotation" and "mental scanning") (Paivio, 1971, 2007; Shepard & Metzler, 1971; Shepard & Cooper, 1982; Kosslyn et al., 1978; Kosslyn, 1980). A strong empirical case was built up for the functional importance of imagery in cognition, and a vigorous (and continuing) debate ensued about the nature of the cognitive mechanisms responsible for imagery (Block, 1981; Morris & Hampson, 1983; Grueter, 2006; Thomas, 2003, 2010 §4).
However, there was not a comparable revival of scientific interest in consciousness until the 1990s. As cognitive theories of imagery developed in the 1960s through the 1980s and beyond, only cursory attention was given to the fact that it is a conscious phenomenon (or to the, arguably, closely related fact that it bears intentionality) (Baars, 1996). Even today (the early 21st century), cognitive scientists and neuroscientists often treat imagery purely as a form of representation, and offer no substantive account of how images are able to represent (almost certainly it is not because they resemble their objects (Thomas, 2003 §3.2, 2010§3.3)), or of how they come to be consciously experienced.
Since the pioneering work of Francis Galton in the nineteenth century (Galton, 1880a, 1880b, 1883) there has been a tradition of research into individual differences in the subjective experience of imagery. Galton prepared a questionnaire in which he asked his subjects to recall their morning breakfast table, and to consider "the picture that rises before your mind's eye." They were then asked to comment on a number of subjective aspects of that image, such as its brightness, its clarity, and the distinctness of the colors. One of the best knowing findings of Galton's study is that some small minority of the questionnaire respondents reported that they were unable to visualize anything whatsoever. Unfortunately, no systematic research has since been done on this phenomenon, and the issue remains very poorly understood (although recent research (Brewer & Schommer-Aikins, 2006) has directly contradicted Galton's related claim that scientists are particularly likely to be weak or "non-" imagers).
Subsequent researchers have refined Galton's questionnaire technique in various ways, most importantly, perhaps, by introducing numerical scales along which the subjects can rate the strength of the image attribute of interest. Most often, this attribute is "vividness," but there are also questionnaires that attempt to measure such things as how easily someone can transform their mental images (by asking them to form an image and then change it in some specified way, and then rate the difficulty of doing so), or how frequently they use images of one or another sense mode in their thinking. In the early 20th century there was considerable interest in classifying people into "imagery types" according to which sensory mode of imagery (visual, auditory, haptic, etc.) they preferred (Angell, 1906 ch 8; Fernald, 1912). It was hoped that these "types" might prove to be correlated with other independently measurable aspects of the person's psychological makeup. However, no clear cut pattern of findings emerged (Thorndike, 1914 ch.16; Griffits, 1927).
Perhaps the most extensively and successfully used imagery questionnaire of recent times is the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ) devised by David Marks (1973, 1989, 1999). Taking the VVIQ involves being asked to visualize a series of specified objects and scenes and to rate the vividness of each resulting image on a five-point scale ranging from "no image at all" to "as clear and vivid as normal vision." An average score is then calculated.
Clearly research of this sort deals with imagery as a conscious phenomenon. It relies upon the subjects' verbal, introspective reports of their subjective experience. Furthermore, there has been much effort to find correlations between people's scores on imagery questionnaires and their other psychological traits. The results, however, have generally been disappointing (Neisser, 1970; Ernest, 1977; Richardson, 1980; Paivio, 1986 p. 117). Even where reproducible correlations have been found, it has often proven difficult to make much theoretical sense out of them. For example, there is some evidence that vivid imagers (as measured by the VVIQ) remember pictures (color photographs) rather better than less vivid imagers (Marks, 1973; Gur & Hilgard, 1975); however, surprisingly, it has also been found that the less vivid imagers (by the VVIQ again) actually remember specific shades and hues of color better (Heuer et al., 1986; Reisberg et al., 1986). Some research suggests that when people form mental images they have elevated levels of activity in the retinotopically mapped visual cortex of their brain, and that this activity is greater for more vivid imagers (Amedi et al., 2005; Cui et al., 2007). However, other researchers fail to find elevated activity in these areas during imagery (they find it elsewhere in the brain). Perhaps most surprisingly and disappointingly, however, virtually no sign of any correlation has been found between people's vividness ratings and their performance (speed or accuracy) in various visuo-spatial thinking and problem solving tasks, even though, subjectively, such tasks seem to depend on imagery.
There are also a number of conceptual concerns about the validity of questionnaires of this type (see Kaufmann, 1981, 1983). Most obviously, as the rating is necessarily purely subjective, and as nobody can experience another's image, there is no way to tell whether the scales are being applied in a consistent way. Perhaps an image that one person thinks of as "clear and reasonably vivid" another might rate as "vague and dim," simply because different subjective standards are being applied.
Furthermore, most people will probably agree that the vividness of their imagery can vary markedly from time to time, circumstance to circumstance, and image to image: Some memories may come back to us (often for no very apparent reason) as especially vivid images, whereas others (or even the same ones on other occasions) are recalled only vaguely and dimly. Thus it may be that these tests do not measure a person's true capacity for having vivid images, but only, at best, the vividness that their images tend to have under the circumstances of filling out an imagery questionnaire.
Finally, it is unclear quite what "vividness" truly means; whether it is really a well defined, coherent attribute of experience. Perhaps different subjective image features such as (for example) clarity, apparent brightness, level of discriminable detail, stability of the image (whether it can be held in consciousness for a time, or quickly fades), and so forth, in fact vary independently of one another, but tend to get indiscriminately lumped together as "vividness." Some recent research suggests that introspective ratings of certain more fine grained aspects of subjective imagery experience may be more meaningful than simple vividness ratings (Dean & Morris, 2003; Burton & Fogarty, 2003).
There is much controversy in the contemporary scientific and philosophical literature about the underlying nature and mechanisms of imagery. The rival theories fall into three broad classes, each of which have distinctive implications for our understanding of imaginal consciousness:
Because of the vigorous, high-profile dispute (known as the "analog-propositional" debate, or sometimes just "the imagery debate") that flared up between advocates of the first two theory types in the 1970s, and that continues to rumble on even today (see Grueter, 2006; Thomas, 2010 §4.4), picture and description theories have become by far the better known of these theoretical alternatives. Unfortunately, this debate has been conducted almost entirely without regard to the conscious nature (or, indeed, the intentionality) of imagery. Each of the three theory types purports to be able to account for the full range of established empirical facts about imagery, and, in fact, each is flexibly enough conceived that it is likely to prove difficult to choose between them on narrowly empirical grounds. That being so, it seems reasonable that our evaluation of them should look to broader theoretical concerns, such as their respective implications for the theory of consciousness.
Picture theory, as the name suggests, holds that visual mental images may be identified with representations in the mind and/or brain that are in some significant way like pictures, or, at least, that represent things in much the same way that pictures represent things. (Whatever that way may be: Although it is widely believed that pictures represent through resemblance, it does not seem likely that resemblance can be the basis of mental representation. Resemblance is a fundamentally subjective relationship that is recognized when a conscious mind focuses upon certain similarities between things while, at the same time, discounting or ignoring other, equally objectively real dissimilarities. In order to do this, the mind must already be able to represent the things, and their relevant aspects, to itself (Thomas, 2003, 2010 §3.3).)
Picture theory is undoubtedly the oldest and most widely accepted theory of imagery. After all, since prehistoric times people have used pictures as a means of causing one another to have visual experiences of things that are not really there, and the analogy with mental imagery (also experience of things that are not really there) is all too easily drawn. The theory goes back at least to Plato, and some rudimentary version of it seems to be deeply entrenched in "folk" (i.e., lay or "commonsense") beliefs about how the mind works. Indeed, many of the expressions used to talk about imagery in ordinary colloquial language (such as, "mental picture," "the mind's eye," and even "image" itself) seem to be derived from this "folk" version of picture theory. The fact that the theory is embedded in our language in this way can make it difficult to express or understand criticisms of it, or to clearly grasp alternative accounts of the actual phenomena. Nevertheless, many twentieth and twenty-first century philosophers have raised telling objections against it (notably: Sartre, 1940; Ryle, 1949; Dennett, 1969; McGinn, 2004), leading some of them to be accused (quite unjustifiably) of denying that people have quasi-visual experiences (see Thomas, 2010 §3.3, including notes 21 & 22).
However, the picture theory today is not just a folk theory. From the 1970s onward, cognitive scientists, most particularly Stephen Kosslyn, have developed the basic idea of the mental image as an inner picture into a sophisticated and detailed scientific model designed to account for a wide range of experimental findings (Kosslyn, 1975, 1980, 1981, 1983; Kosslyn et al., 1979). More recent versions of this theory hold that the visual mental image is embodied as a spatially extended two-dimensional pattern of neural excitation in the retinotopically mapped visual cortices of the brain (Kosslyn, 1994; Kosslyn et al., 2006). Such patterns, isomorphic to the pattern of optical stimulation on the retinae of the eyes, are known to occur during vision. Kosslyn holds that our mental images are similar patterns, but generated from internal sources rather than sensory input.
This is not the place to review all the alleged empirical shortcomings of quasi-pictorial theory. However, both introspective and empirical evidence suggest a number of ways in which the experience of imagery and the experience of looking at a picture vary. Perhaps the strongest evidence comes from experiments involving pictures that invite more than one interpretation, such as the Necker cube and the duck-rabbit (figure 1). Subjects find it very much harder to see both interpretations in their mental images of these than they do when the picture is physically displayed in front them, and this applies even when the picture is their own drawing, based upon their mental image (Chambers & Reisberg, 1985).
Figure 1: The Necker cube and the duck-rabbit.
Kosslyn maintains that the pattern of neural excitation that (he thinks) constitutes the mental image is only a picture in an extended, metaphorical sense: a "quasi picture." After all, unlike regular pictures (drawings, photographs, projected optical images, etc.), we do not need to see it with our eyes in order to derive information from it, or consciously experience it. The neural excitation pattern is like a picture only inasmuch as it represents spatial relationships within the two-dimensional projection of the represented visual scene by topologically equivalent spatial relationships in the spatially extended pattern of excitation (Kosslyn, 1975, 1980, 1981, 1983). Kosslyn maintains that because his theory does not identify mental images with pictures in the full, literal sense, but only with these "quasi pictures," it avoids all of the many powerful objections that have been raised against naïve "folk" versions of picture theory (Kosslyn, 1980; Kosslyn & Pomerantz, 1977; Kopsslyn et al., 2006). Whether this is so, however, remains controversial (Pylyshyn, 1981, 2002, 2003, 2007; Slezak, 1995; Thomas, 1999b, 2010 §§4.4 & supp.).
Although the modern version of pictorial theory can account for a large amount of empirical data about how people use mental images as representations, its supporters have given very little attention to the question of how it might account for the fact that imagery is (at least sometimes) consciously experienced. There seem to be two basic ways in which this issue might be approached. Either the quasi picture in the cortex might be conscious in and of itself, or, alternatively, consciousness arises when some other, more inward cognitive structure, a "mind's eye" as it were, somehow "quasi-sees" the quasi picture.
The first option, however, runs immediately into the notorious "hard problem" of consciousness (Chalmers, 1995, 1996) in its most intractable form: we really have no idea how a pattern of excitation in part of the brain (excitation that is ultimately nothing but an elaborately choreographed dance of molecules and ions around and through membranes) could possibly be, or give rise to, a conscious experience of any sort, let alone an experience of a spatially extended structure isomorphic to the excited brain region.
In any case, the second option appears to be favored by Kosslyn (1992, 2001). He speaks of (and diagrams) a "mind's eye function" gathering information from the quasi-pictorial image in the brain, and some of his explanations of empirical findings seem to depend upon this idea (e.g., Kosslyn, 1975, 1980 p.6, 2001; Kosslyn & Shwartz, 1977). Perhaps then, just as ordinary visual consciousness arises when people take in visual information with their eyes, imaginal consciousness arises when the mind's eye takes in visual information from the inner picture.
But the "mind's eye" metaphor strongly suggests that the theory commits the homunculus fallacy. To whom might this eye belong if not to a conscious little man inside my head, who experiences the inner world of quasi pictures in a way analogous to that in which I, a whole person, experience the external world through my bodily eyes? Compounding this worry is the fact that, at a formal, structural level (abstracting away from implementational details), Kosslyn's quasi-pictorial theory of imagery looks very like a more detailed version of Descartes' theory of imagery (Thomas, 2003 §3.3, 2010 §2.3.1 & §4.4 & supp.). For Descartes too, mental images are material quasi pictures formed within the brain and consciously experienced not simply because they are there, but because they are somehow "seen" by the soul (Descartes, 1637, 1664). Kosslyn (1983, 2001) makes it clear that he does not intend to follow Descartes in attributing our consciousness of these brain pictures to an immaterial soul (a ghostly homunculus) beyond the reach of science; but although quasi-pictorial theory may not necessarily imply Cartesian dualism, it does seem to be at least committed to Cartesian materialism, the notion that subjective experience depends upon some structure in the brain that (like a soul or a homunculus) acts as a conscious inner spectator of internal representations.
Quasi-pictorialists seem to have two comebacks to the homunculus objection. One is to point out (as Kosslyn has often done (e.g., Kosslyn et al., 2006 p. 41)) that a computer simulation of quasi-pictorial theory has been implemented (Kosslyn & Shwartz, 1977), and that there can be no homunculus (at least of any objectionable sort) within a computer. Unfortunately, however, it turns out that the computer program in question makes no attempt whatsoever to model the conscious nature of imagery. Like most of Kosslyn's work, it is concerned to explore how certain sorts of spatial thinking might be achieved through imagery, via such operations as scanning linearly across a quasi picture, or rotating it into a new orientation. The program performs such operations on internal data structures that are supposed to model, at a functional level, the brain quasi pictures posited by the theory, and it displays its results in the form of actual pictures that are rotated or shifted across the computer's display screen in relevant ways (Kosslyn & Shwartz, 1977). No attempt is made to simulate the hypothesized "mind's eye function," and consciousness, either real or simulated, does not enter into the matter at all unless and until some human operator looks at the screen. It is true that there is no homunculus in the computer, but, inasmuch as the system models consciousness at all, it models it by co-opting a full sized conscious human being to play the homunculus role (Thomas, 2010 §4.4.1).
Not coincidentally, the program also omits to model the intentionality of imagery. The fact that the two-dimensional patterns it produces and manipulates may look like pictorial representations to human onlookers (and were designed to look that way by the programmers) is quite irrelevant to the program's functioning. For the computer, they represent nothing.
The second comeback is to suggest that perhaps cognitive science can render the homunculus and its "mind's eye" innocuous by showing that it can be reduced to a set of computational or neural processes. Quasi-pictorial theory was originally developed in the context of the "information processing" paradigm which dominated perceptual theory at the time (the 1970s), and which still deeply influences the way many cognitive scientists think about perception. In essence, "information processing" theory regards vision as a one way flow of visual information, in through the eyes and then through a series of processing stages in the brain until it is eventually transformed into a representation, or a set of representations, suitable for guiding behavior. (This is an oversimplification, but not, in this context, a misleading one. Developed information processing theories generally call for a significant degree of top-down modulation of the bottom-up flow of information from the sense organs. Nevertheless, the bottom-up flow dominates and drives perception.) A common assumption (usually implicit) is that this final set of representations, this ultimate product of the visual information processing system, is the immediate cause of conscious visual experience.
(Some information processing theorists may prefer to think of visual consciousness not as something attaching to representations, but, rather, as something arising from the workings of the processing system as a whole, perhaps even including the sense organs and the muscles that support behavioral response. However, this position is not open to the pictorial imagery theorist, who necessarily holds that we have conscious experience of inner representations.)
According to quasi-pictorial imagery theory, one of the earlier stages of this visual information processing is the creation of quasi-pictorial representations in the brain. These may be derived from actual present visual input from the eyes (when we are actually seeing), or they may be created from stored data in memory (when we are remembering or imagining), but in either case they must be passed through several more stages of processing in order to extract useful information from them (Kosslyn, 1980, 1994, 2005; Thomas, 2010 §4.4 supp.). It is these further stages that constitute the "mind's eye function." Thus, it can be argued, the mind's eye has a principled and independently motivated role within the broader theory of vision. As scientists are actively investigating and seem to be making progress in understanding the computational and neural mechanisms of visual information processing, this "mind's eye" function is not so much a non-explanatory homunculus as a promissory note drawn against the expected success of an ongoing research program.
But even if information processing theory does provide the right framework for understanding visual perception (and not everyone thinks it does), the output of all the processing is just more representations, instantiated as patterns of neural activity. Once again, it seems that we must say either that these representations are conscious in and of themselves, which brings us smack up against the "hard problem" once again, or else we need another homunculus to read them and be conscious of what they represent. Perhaps this homunculus, also, might be reduced to a further series of stages of information processing, but this would only lead us to the same place yet again, and so on in unending regress. We still do not begin to understand how quasi pictures could be, or could produce, conscious imaginal experiences.
Description theory, whose most important advocate has been Zenon Pylyshyn, began as an attempt to understand how the phenomena of imagery could be fitted into a computational theory of the mind. Pylyshyn holds that the way computers (and, by extension, brains) represent information is necessarily more like language than like pictures. The syntax, and, indeed, the vocabulary, of the hypothetical internal brain language (sometimes called "mentalese") might be very different from that of any language that anyone speaks, but it is language-like in that it ultimately consists of symbolic tokens that represent things in the world in much the same way as the words of a language do, not through resemblance but through some essentially arbitrary correspondence relation.
In the case of "natural" languages, like English or Chinese, this correspondence (which determines, for instance, that the word "dog" refers to dogs) is established by social convention. In the case of humanly written computer programs the external reference of symbolic tokens (when they have one) is set by the programmer. Matters are much less clear when we come to hypothetical symbolic tokens in the brain, and there is great controversy over how, or whether, the "symbol grounding problem" (the problem of understanding how the "words" of mentalese might be able to refer to things outside the brain) can be solved. Nevertheless, much work in cognitive science proceeds on the assumption that a solution is possible.
If the symbolic tokens that comprise computational representational systems represent as words do, then it seems to follow that, by analogy with the way language represents visual scenes, the brain-computer represents visual scenes with descriptions. From this perspective, such mentalese descriptions are the end-product of perceptual information processing, and thus responsible for our perceptual experiences. Of course, we do not experience the descriptions as being descriptions, but, it is assumed, they nevertheless constitute our perceptual experience. If mentalese descriptions of visual scenes are retrieved from memory rather than being the result of present sensory input, or if they are constructed out of bits and pieces of various descriptions in memory, then we have the experience of mental imagery.
Pylyshyn claims that, since descriptions can be partial, incomplete, and can leave out all sorts of information (not only details, but sometimes even facts about the global structure of a scene) description theory can explain the frequently indefinite and ambiguous nature of our imagery better than picture theory can (Pylyshyn, 1973, 1981, 2002, 2003). However, the theory's main motivation is clearly the belief that it better respects fundamental facts about the nature of computational representation.
If anything, however, description theorists have paid even less heed than quasi-pictorial theorists to the question of how images (or, come to that, percepts) come to be consciously experienced. Clearly, we are not aware of mentalese descriptions as such, but the idea seems to be that we can, at least sometimes, be consciously aware of what they represent. Like the quasi-pictorialists, however, description theorists appear to be implicitly committed to the view that mental representations, including the elementary symbolic tokens of mentalese, and the symbol complexes that make up visual descriptions (and, thus, mental images), are physically instantiated as patterns of brain excitation (just as representations in a computer are instantiated as electrical charge patterns in RAM chips and CPU registers). This brings us to exactly the same "hard problem" as before: it seems impossible to conceive how patterns of brain excitation (which, themselves, are reducible to movements of ions, etc.) could be, or give rise to, conscious experience as we know it.
Quasi-pictorial and description theories are both attempts to explain how imagery, quasi-visual experience, might be explained within the context of an information processing theory of perception. They disagree over whether it should be identified with representations from an early or late stage of visual processing, and over the format of those representations (Thomas, 2010 §4.4). The enactive theory of imagery depends upon a quite different way of conceiving of perception, one that was pioneered in the twentieth century by James Gibson (1966, 1979), and is more recently exemplified in "active vision" techniques used in robotics, and the "sensorimotor" or "enactive" theory of perception advocated by J. K. O'Regan and Alva Noë, amongst others (O'Regan, 1992, 2011; O'Regan & Noë, 2001a; Noë, 2004, 2009). Instead of regarding vision as, at root, a matter of information flowing in through the eyes into the brain, and toward some internal center of consciousness, enactive theory regards it as a matter of the visual system actively seeking out and extracting (or "picking up") desired information from the environment (Gibson, 1966, 1979; Thomas, 1999b; O'Regan & Noë, 2001a, Hayhoe & Rothkopf, 2011; O'Regan, 2011). Seeing is not like taking a photograph (even a digital photograph whose file gets passed on to a computer for further processing); it is more akin to performing a series of (many, rapid) scientific tests and measurements on the information-bearing ambient light that surrounds us (what Gibson (1979) called the "optic array") (Thomas, 1999b). Rather than being the passive reception of information, vision (and perception in general) is a purposive process of, as it were, asking questions about our surroundings, and actively seeking out the answers (Ellis, 1995; Thomas, 1999b; Rothkopf et al., 2007; Castelhano et al., 2009). Visual consciousness is the experience of being engaged in this exploratory, questioning, information seeking activity, involving not only the making of the tests and measurements themselves, but also the continual adjustment of our expectations, and thus our exploratory behavior itself, in response to their findings.
Consider how we identify an object by touch. If something is simply pressed against our skin, we can tell very little about it. However, if we actively explore it, moving our fingers around to feel its shape and texture, seeking out corners and edges, squeezing it to assess its hardness, and so on, we can discover a great deal. What we learn derives not simply from the sensations we feel in our skin, but, crucially, from the way those sensations change in response to the purposeful, information-seeking movements of our fingers (Lederman & Klatzky, 1990; Smith et al., 2002). Enactive visual theory holds that vision works in fundamentally the same sort of way, except that the exploratory, information-seeking behavior mostly happens so quickly and automatically that its details are unavailable to introspection (Thomas, 1999b; O'Regan & Noë, 2001a; Noë, 2004; O'Regan, 2011).
Eye movements are perhaps the most obvious (and experimentally accessible) aspect of this visual information-seeking behavior – our eyes constantly, and purposefully, but largely unconsciously, flit rapidly around to take in information from different points of interest – and the enactive theory of imagery finds support in a number of recent experiments showing that the stimulus-specific eye movement patterns produced when a subject examines a complex visual stimulus are (quite unconsciously) re-enacted when the same subject later forms a memory image of that same stimulus.
However, eye movements cannot be the whole story. There clearly are bottom-up, inner representations involved in human vision. For example, the pattern of illumination on the retina does indeed produce a corresponding pattern of excitation in the visual cortex, and this carries information about the scene momentarily before our eyes. From the enactivist perspective, however, such representations are not conscious or even mental in any very meaningful sense (Meijsing, 2006). Quasi-pictorial theory seems to imply that, when we see, these representations are what we are conscious of. Enactive perceptual theory denies this, and holds instead that we are conscious of the actual things out in front of our eyes. Like the optical image formed inside a camera, the excitation pattern of visual cortex carries information about our surroundings, but this only gives rise to visual knowledge and awareness inasmuch as this data source is purposefully explored, searched, and queried. It is this active, exploratory searching that turns the mere passive reception of visual information (something that a camera can do) into true perception.
It is important to note, also, that the particular pattern of this exploratory questioning, and the particular tests and measurements brought into play (both external eye movements and internal data analysis processes), will be quite different when different sorts of things are being looked at. For example, in order to see a cat we would need to go through a set of exploratory actions appropriate to cat-seeing. These might include moving our eyes to focus on the likely location of particular characteristic cat features (pointed ears, gently curving tail, etc.), but will also undoubtedly include purely internal processes whereby further questions are answered by querying the data flowing bottom-up into the brain. The key idea is that there is a specific structured set of exploratory queries, what has been called a visual routine, appropriate to cat seeing (or even Tiddles-curled-up-asleep seeing), and a different set for each other type of thing that we are able to recognize. So, if visual experience arises from the active seeking for, and finding, of information, imagery, quasi-visual experience, arises when we actively seek certain information, and persist in going through the motions of looking for it, even though it is not there to be found. To visually recognize a cat is to run through a specific, cat-recognizing visual routine, and to imagine a cat is to perform (or partially perform) this same visual routine when there is no cat present (Thomas, 1999b, 2003, 2010 §4.5). The experience is different from actual seeing because there is no perceptual feedback from the cat itself (and we must, as it were, force ourselves to go on looking for cat features even though it is becoming ever more clear that we will not find them) but it is similar to real cat-seeing inasmuch as the pattern of perceptual exploration that we perform is similar. Arguably, this reflects the phenomenology of imagery, which is subjectively both like and unlike true seeing. In particular, it usually seems to take much more effort to sustain an image in consciousness for any length of time than it does to simply keep looking at something. From the enactive perspective, to have a conscious visual experience is not to have a representation in one's brain, but to act, and to be interacting with the world, in a certain way. To have imagery is to act in the same sort of way, but to fail to interact. Actions (unlike brain states) have inherent intentionality, just as mental images do: actions are necessarily about, or directed at, something (possibly something imaginary, as when we search for the leprechaun's gold), just as images are always images of something. When I enact my perceptual routine for looking at, and recognizing, a cat, my action is intended to enable me to see a cat, and in a real sense it remains so, it remains cat-directed, even when I enact it knowing that no cat is actually there to be seen. However, to point out that actions have intentionality is not, thereby, to explain how they come to have that intentionality, and to say that mental images are really actions rather than entities (representational brain states) is not, in itself, to explain how they come to be conscious. Much more work needs to be done to make these matters clear. Although it has been argued that enactive (or "sensorimotor") perceptual theory can explain perceptual consciousness, such claims remain very controversial. Nevertheless, the enactive theory of imagery clearly radically reframes the problem of explaining imaginal consciousness. No longer is it (as for quasi-pictorial and description theories) a problem of explaining how a brain state can be a conscious (and intentional) state. Rather the problem is to give a scientific account of the intentionality of action (a problem we face anyway), and then to explain how such action can somehow constitute consciousness. This is, no doubt, a difficult problem, but it is not the "hard problem."
At the time of writing, imagery is still a rather neglected topic within the broader, and growing, field of consciousness studies. This is in rather stark contrast to the importance it was accorded by earlier, pre-Behaviorist students of consciousness (Thomas, 2010 §3.1 supps.). Indeed, the Behaviorist revolt against consciousness, which let to several decades of scientific neglect of the topic, seems to have been fueled, in considerable part, by frustration at the factious and irreconcilable "imageless thought" controversy, and it clearly involved the rejection of imagery quite as much as the rejection of consciousness itself. Perhaps recent students of consciousness have been reluctant to fully engage the topic of imagery because it has already proven so controversial within cognitive science, and because the best-known theories that have been developed in that context do little to illuminate imagery's conscious nature. However, this situation may now be changing, and a developing understanding of imagery may come, once again, to be seen as an integral and essential aspect of our developing understanding of consciousness itself.
In this article, the "hard problem" of consciousness refers to the problem of understanding how a brain state (a spatio-temporal pattern of neuronal excitation, itself reducible to a complex dance of molecules and ions around membranes) could possibly be a conscious experience. Posed this way, the problem is unsolved, and may well be insoluble. It does not necessarily follow that consciousness cannot be scientifically understood, however. The problem may be ill-posed.
A thought that is (i) consciously experienced, but (ii), unlike mental imagery, has no sensory or "perception-like" character. The existence of such thoughts has been controversial ever since the notion was first introduced into psychology in the early twentieth century (Thomas, 2010 §3.2).
The property, possessed by many, perhaps all, mental acts or entities (such as mental images, beliefs, desires, and thoughts in general), of being about, of, or directed at something. The "thing" in question (sometimes referred to as the "intentional object" of the image, thought, or whatever) may be real or imaginary (one may have a thought about a unicorn quite as well as a thought about a horse). This technical, philosophical concept of intentionality is only indirectly (if at all) related to the ordinary language notion of having an intention (to do something), or of doing something intentionally (i.e., on purpose rather than inadvertently).
Quasi-perceptual experience: that is, experience that subjectively resembles perceptual experience, but which occurs in the absence of the relevant perceptual stimuli. It is generally acknowledged that imagery may occur in any sense mode – visual, auditory (including what is sometimes called "inner speech," or "thinking in words"), olfactory, kinesthetic, etc. – or even in several simultaneously. However, visual mental imagery, also colloquially referred to as "visualization," "seeing in the mind's eye," "picturing," etc., has been by far the most extensively studied and discussed.
The hypothetical, innate and unconscious, "language of thought," held by some cognitive scientists to be the symbolic format in which information is represented within the brain, and which the brain, considered as a computer, uses in its computations. It supposedly resembles the languages people actually speak in having a combinatorial syntax and an arbitrary semantics. Clearly we are not consciously aware of our mentalese representations as such, but if they do indeed exist they may be the substrate of the conscious thoughts that we experience as mental imagery and "inner" speech.
Certain visual processing areas of the cortex of the brain, most notably the primary visual cortex (V1), that are structured as (rather distorted and low resolution) maps of the light-sensitive retina upon which light is focused at the back of the eye. Adjacent regions of cortex, in these areas, correspond to adjacent areas on the retina such that, during vision, the two-dimensional spatial pattern of excitation of the cortical neurons corresponds topologically to the pattern of illumination, the optical image, on the retina.
(For the works actually cited in this version of the article, and its notes, see the Supplementary Bibliography, below.)
(Not in the published version.)
Compiled by Nigel J.T. Thomas
This bibliography lists the works cited in the updated version of the main text (above), and in the notes. It does not appear in the formally published version (which lacks both citations and notes).
Links to online copies of items in this bibliography (or pages that give access to them) have sometimes been provided (as have DOIs) when I had the information to hand, and especially when the item might otherwise be difficult to find. Just because a link and/or DOI is not provided, however, it does not follow that the item is not available, for free, on line somewhere. You might be able to find it via Google Scholar, for example. It may be available when you look, even if it was not there when this page was created. By the same token, given the dynamic nature of the Web and the limited time I have available to keep this site updated, I cannot be responsible for dead links. - N.J.T.T.
Abrahamyan, A., Clifford, C.W.G., Ruzzoli, M., Phillips, D., Arabzadeh, E., & Harris, J.A. (2011). Accurate and Rapid Estimation of Phosphene Thresholds (REPT). PLoS One (6 #7) e22342. Open access online publication: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0022342 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022342
Addis, D.R., Wong, A.T., & Schacter, D.L. (2007). Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future: Common and Distinct Neural Substrates During Event Construction and Elaboration. Neuropsychologia (45) 1363-1377.
Agnati, L.F., Guidolin, D., Battistin, L., Pagnoni, G., & Fuxe, K. (2013). The Neurobiology of Imagination: Possible Role of Interaction-Dominant Dynamics and Default Mode Network. Frontiers in Psychology (4 #296), Open access online journal: http://www.frontiersin.org/Journal/Abstract.aspx?s=253&name=consciousness_research&ART_DOI=10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00296
Ahsen, A. (1965). Eidetic Psychotherapy: A Short Introduction. New York: Brandon House.
Ahsen, A. (1977). Eidetics: An Overview. Journal of Mental Imagery (1) 5-38.
Aizawa, K. (2007). Understanding the Embodiment of Perception. Journal of Philosophy (104 #1) 5-25.
Akins, K. (1996). Of Sensory Systems and the “Aboutness” of Mental States. Journal of Philosophy (91) 337-372.
Aleman, A. & Larøi, F. (2008). Hallucinations: The Science of Idiosyncratic Perception. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Aleman. A., Nieuwenstein, M.R., Bocker, K.B., & de Haan, E.H. (2000). Mental Imagery and Perception in Hallucination-Prone Individuals. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (12) 830-836.
Allport G.W. (1928). The Eidetic Image and the After-Image. American Journal of Psychology (40 #3) 418-425.
Aloimonos, Y. (Ed.) (1993). Active Perception. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Alpern, M. & Barr, L. (1962). Durations of the After-Images of Brief Light Flashes and the Theory of the Broca and Sulzer Phenomenon. Journal of the Optical Society of America (52 #2) 219-221.
Altmann, G.T.M. (2004). Language-Mediated Eye Movements in the Absence of a Visual World: The 'Blank Screen Paradigm'. Cognition (93 #2) B79-B87.
Amedi, A. Malach, R., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2005). Negative BOLD Differentiates Visual Imagery and Perception. Neuron (48) 859-872.
Anderson, J.R. (1978). Arguments Concerning Representations for Mental Imagery. Psychological Review (85) 249-77.
Anderson, J.R. (1979). Further Arguments Concerning Representations for Mental Imagery: A Response to Hayes-Roth and Pylyshyn. Psychological Review (86) 395-406.
Anderson, J.R. (1983). The Architecture of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Anderson, J.R. & Bower G.H. (1973). Human Associative Memory. Washington D.C.: Winston/ New York: Wiley.
Andrade, J., Kavanagh, D., & Baddeley, A.D. (1997). Eye-Movements and Visual Imagery: A Working Memory Approach to the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology (36) 209-223.
Angell, J.R. (1906). Psychology: An Introductory Study of the Structure and Function of Human Consciousness (3rd edn.). New York: Henry Holt and Co.
Annett, J. (1995a). Imagery and Motor Processes: Editorial Overview. British Journal of Psychology (86 #2) 161-167.
Annett, J. (1995b). Motor Imagery: Perception or Action? Neuropsychologia (33 #11) 1395-1417.
Annett, J. (1996). On Knowing How to Do Things: A Theory of Motor Imagery. Cognitive Brain Research (3) 65-69.
Anscombe, G.E.M. (1965). The Intentionality of Sensation: A Grammatical Feature. In R.J. Butler (Ed.), Analytical Philosophy – Second Series (pp. 158-180). Oxford: Blackwell.
Antrobus, J.S., Antrobus, J.S., & Singer, J.L. (1964). Eye Movements Accompanying Daydreaming, Visual Imagery, and Thought Suppression. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (69) 244-252.
APA (2006). American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: Compendium 2006. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Ashwin, P.T. & Tsaloumas, M.D. (2007). Complex Visual Hallucinations (Charles Bonnet Syndrome) in the Hemianopic Visual Field Following Occipital Infarction. Journal of the Neurological Sciences (263) 184-186.
Assad, G. (1990). Hallucinations in Clinical Psychiatry. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Austin, J.L. (1962). Sense and Sensibilia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Aydede, M. (2010). The Language of Thought Hypothesis. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition). Stanford, CA: CSLI. Online publication: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/language-thought/
Ayers, M. (1991). Locke: Epistemology and Ontology (2 volumes). London: Routledge.
Baars, B.J. (1996). When are Images Conscious? The Curious Disconnection between Imagery and Consciousness in the Scientific Literature. Consciousness and Cognition (5) 261-264.
Baddeley, A.D. (1994). Working Memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working Memory: Looking Back and Looking Forward. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience (4) 829-839.
Baddeley, A.D. & Hitch, G. (1974). Working Memory. In G.H. Bower (Ed.) The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 8 (pp.47-89). New York & London: Academic Press.
Bajcsy, R. (1988). Active Perception. Proceedings of the IEEE (76 #8) 996-1005.
Ball, T., Breckel, T.P.K., Mutschler, I., Aertsen, A., Schulze-Bonhage, A., Hennig, J., & Speck, O. (2012). Variability of fMRI-Response Patterns at Different Spatial Observation Scales. Human Brain Mapping (33 #5) 1155-1171.
Ballard, D. H. (1991). Animate Vision. Artificial Intelligence (48) 57-86.
Barber, T.X. & Calverley, (1964). An Experimental Study of 'Hypnotic' (Auditory and Visual) Hallucinations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (63) 13-20.
Bardone, E. (2011). Seeking Chances: From Biased Rationality to Distributed Cognition. Berlin: Springer.
Barrowcliff, A.L., Gray, N.S., Freeman, T.C.A., & MacCulloch, M.J. (2004). Eye-Movements Reduce the Vividness, Emotional Valence and Electrodermal Arousal Associated with Negative Autobiographical Memories. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology (15 #2) 325-345.
Barsalou, L.W. (1999). Perceptual Symbol Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences (22) 577-660 (with commentaries and author's reply).
Barsalou, L.W., Simmons, W.K., Barbey, A.K., & Wilson, C.D. (2003). Grounding Conceptual Knowledge in Modality Specific Systems. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (7), 84-91.
Bartolomeo, P. (2002). The Relationship Between Visual perception and Visual Mental Imagery: A Reappraisal of the Neuropsychological Evidence. Cortex (38) 357-378.
Bartolomeo, P., Bachoud-Lévi, A.C., Azouvi, P., & Chokron, S. (2005). Time to Imagine Space: A Chronometric Exploration of Representational Neglect. Neuropsychologia (43) 1249-57.
Bartolomeo, P., Bachoud-Lévi, A.-C., De Gelder, B. Denes, G.,G., Dalla Barba, G., Brugieres, P. & Degos, J.-P. (1998). Multiple-Domain Dissociation between Impaired Visual Perception and Preserved Mental Imagery in a Patient with Bilateral Extrastriate Lesions. Neuropsychologia (36) 239-249.
Bartolomeo, P. & Chokron, S. (2002). Can We Change our Vantage Point to Explore Imaginal Neglect? Behavioral and Brain Sciences (25) 184-185.
Basso, A., Bisiach, E., & Luzzatti, C. (1980). Loss of Mental Imagery: a Case Study. Neuropsychologia (18) 435-442.
Baylor, G.W. (1972). A Treatise on the Mind's Eye: An Empirical Investigation of Visual Mental Imagery. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. (University Microfilms 72-12, 699.)
Baylor, G.W. (1973). Modelling the Mind's Eye. In A. Elithorn & D. Jones (Eds.), Artificial and Human Thinking. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Beare, J.I. (1906). Greek Theories of Elementary Cognition: From Alcmaeon to Aristotle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Behrmann, M. (2000). The Mind's Eye Mapped Onto the Brain's Matter. Current Directions in Psychological Science (9) 50-54.
Bejarano, T. (2011). Becoming Human: From Pointing Gestures to Syntax. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Benner, J. (2002). Consciousness Based on Wireless? Wired (May 21st, 2002). Retrieved on November 28th, 2011 from http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2002/05/52674
Bennett, C.M., Baird, A.A., Miller, M.B., & Wolford, G.L. (2010). Neural Correlates of Interspecies Perspective Taking in the Post-Mortem Atlantic Salmon: An Argument for Proper Multiple Comparisons Correction. Journal of Serendipitous and Unexpected Results (1) 1-5. Online journal, URL: http://www.jsur.org/v1n1p1
Bennett, C.M. & Miller, M.B. (2010). How Reliable Are the Results from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1191) 133-155.
Bennett, M.R. & Hacker, P.M.S. (2003). Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bensafi, M., Porter, J., Pouliot, S., Mainland, J., Johnson, B., Zelano, C., Young, N., Bremner, E., Aframian. D., Khan, R., & Sobel, N. (2003). Olfactomotor Activity During Imagery Mimics That During Perception. Nature Neuroscience (6) 1142-1144.
Berger, G.H. & Gaunitz, S.C.B. (1977). Self- Rated Imagery and Vividness of Task Pictures in Relation to Visual Memory. British Journal of Psychology (68) 283-288.
Berger, G.H. & Gaunitz, S.C.B. (1979). Self-Rated Imagery and Encoding Strategies in Visual Memory. British Journal of Psychology (70) 21-24.
Berger, R.J. & Oswald, I. (1962). Eye Movements During Active and Passive Dreams. Science (137 #3530) 601.
Berman, D. & Lyons, W. (2007). The First Modern Battle for Consciousness: J.B. Watson's Rejection of Mental Images. Journal of Consciousness Studies (14 #11) 5-26.
Berman, R. & Colby, C. (2009). Attention and Active Vision. Vision Research (49 #10) 1233-1248.
Betts, G.H. (1909). The Distribution and Functions of Mental Imagery. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Bickhard, M. H. & Richie, D. M. (1983). On the Nature of Representation: A Case Study of James Gibson's Theory of Perception. New York: Praeger.
Bisson, J.I., Ehlers, A., Matthews, R., Pilling, S., Richards, D., & Turner, S. (2007). Psychological Treatments for Chronic Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry (190) 97-104.
Blain, P.J. (2006). A Computer Model of Creativity Based on Perceptual Activity Theory. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia. Online, URL: https://www120.secure.griffith.edu.au/rch/items/216fbd23-1f63-1a0f-c680-fe77eea92487/1/
Blake, A. & Yuille, A. (Eds.) (1992). Active Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Block, N. (1981). Introduction. In N. Block (Ed.), Imagery. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Block, N. (1983). Mental Pictures and Cognitive Science. Philosophical Review (92) 499-539.
Block, N. (2005). Review of Alva Noë, Action in Perception. Journal of Philosophy (102) 259-272.
Boodin, J.E. (1921). Sensation, Imagination and Consciousness. Psychological Review (28) 425-454. Online, URL: http://www.brocku.ca/MeadProject/Boodin/Boodin_1921b.html
Boothe, R.G. (2002). Perception of the Visual Environment. New York: Springer.
Botez, M.I., Olivier, M., Vezina, J.-L., Botez, T., & Kaufman, B. (1985). Defective Revisualization: Dissociation between Cognitive and Imagistic Thought, Case Study and Short Review of the Literature. Cortex (21) 375-389.
Bourlon, C., Oliviero, B., Wattiez, N., Pouget, P., & Bartolomeo, P. (2011). Visual Mental Imagery: What the Head's Eye Tells the Mind's Eye. Brain Research (1367) 287-297.
Bradley, P. & Tye, M. (2001). Of Color, Kestrels, Caterpillars, and Leaves. Journal of Philosophy (98) 469-487.
Bradley, R., Greene, J., Russ, E., Dutra, L., & Westen, D. (2005). A Multidimensional Meta-Analysis of Psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry (162 #2) 214-227.
Brain, R. (1954). Loss of Visualization. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine (47) 288-290.
Brandimonte, M.A. & Gerbino, W. (1993). Mental Image Reversal and Verbal Recoding: When Ducks Become Rabbits. Memory and Cognition (21) 23-33.
Brandt, S.A. & Stark, L.W. (1997). Spontaneous Eye Movements During Visual Imagery Reflect the Content of the Visual Scene. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (9) 27-38
Brann, E.T.H. (1991). The World of the Imagination: Sum and Substance. Savage, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Brembs, B. (2009). The Importance of Being Active. Journal of Neurogenetics (23) 120-126.
Brentano, F. (1874). Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. (English edition: Edited by O. Kraus & L.L. McAlister; Translated from the original German by A.C. Rancurello, D.B. Terrell & L.L. McAlister; New York: Humanities Press,1973.)
Bressler, S.L., Tang, W., Sylvester, C.M., Shulman, G.L, & Corbetta, M. (2008). Top-Down Control of Human Visual Cortex by Frontal and Parietal Cortex in Anticipatory Visual Spatial Attention. Journal of Neuroscience (28 #40) 10056-10061.
Brewer, W.F. & Schommer-Aikins, M. (2006). Scientists Are Not Deficient in Mental Imagery: Galton Revised. Review of General Psychology (10) 130-146.
Bridgeman, B. (2010) How the Brain Makes the World Appear Stable. i-Perception (1) 69-72: Open access online journal: http://i-perception.perceptionweb.com/journal/I/article/i0387 DOI: 10.1068/i0387
Bridgeman, B., Gaunt, J., Plumb, E., Quan, J., Chiu, E., & Woods, C. (2008). A Test of the Sensorimotor Account of Vision and Visual Perception. Perception (37 #6) 811-814.
Brindley, G.S. (1962). Two New Properties of Foveal After-images and a Photochemical Hypothesis to Explain Them. Journal of Physiology (164) 168-79.
Brindley, G.S. & Lewin, W.S (1968). The Sensations Produced by Electrical Stimulation of the Visual Cortex. Journal of Physiology (196) 479-493.
Broadbent, D.E. (1958). Perception and Communication. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
Brockmole, R. & Irwin, D. (2005). Eye Movements and the Integration of Visual Memory and Visual Perception. Perception & Psychophysics (67 #3) 495-512.
Brown, B.B. (1968). Visual Recall Ability and Eye Movements. Psychophysiology (4) 300-306.
Brown, J.W. (1972). Aphasia, Apraxia and Agnosia: Clinical and Theoretical Aspects. Springfield, IL: Thomas.
Bugelski, (1979). Eidetic Posession: Is Exorcism Necessary? Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2) 598-599.
Bundy, M.W. (1927). The Theory of Imagination in Classical and Mediaeval Thought (University of Illinois Studies in Language and Literature, Vol.12). Urbana IL: University of Illinois Press. (Reprinted by Norwood Editions, Norwood PA, 1978.)
Burbridge, D. (1994). Galton’s 100: An Exploration of Francis Galton’s Imagery Studies. British Journal for the History of Science (27) 443-463.
Burt, P. J. (1988a). "Smart Sensing" in Machine Vision. In H. Freeman (Ed.), Machine Vision: Algorithms, Architectures, and Systems (pp. 1-30). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Burt. P.J. (1988b) Smart Sensing Within a Pyramid Vision Machine. Proceedings of the IEEE (76) 1006-1015.
Burton, L.J. & Fogarty, G.J. (2003). The Factor Structure of Visual Imagery and Spatial Abilities. Intelligence (31) 289-318.
Butter, C.M., Kosslyn, S., Mijovic-Prelec, D., & Riffle, A. (1997). Field Specific Deficits in Visual Imagery Following Hemianopia Due to Unilateral Occipital Infarcts. Brain (120) 217-228.
Byrne, A. & Hilbert, D. (2003). Color Realism and Color Science. Behavioural and Brain Sciences (26) 3-59.
Cappa, S.F. (2006). Brain Imaging: Useful, Helpful, Beneficial? Cortex (42) 396-398.
Carlson, J., Chemtob, C., Rusnak, K., Hedlund, N., & Muraoka, M. (1998). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Treatment for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress (11 #1) 3-24.
Castelhano, M.S., Mack, M.L., & Henderson, J.M. (2009). Viewing Task Influences Eye Movement Control During Active Scene Perception. Journal of Vision (9 #3:6) 1-15. Open access online journal: http://journalofvision.org/9/3/6/ [doi:10.1167/9.3.6]
Caston, V. (1996). Why Aristotle Needs Imagination. Phronesis (41) 20-55.
Caston, V. (2002). Aristotle on Consciousness. Mind (111) 751-815.
Cavanagh, P., Labianca, A.T., & Thornton, I.M. (2001). Attention-Based Visual Routines: Sprites. Cognition (80) 47-60.
Chalmers, D.J. (1995). Facing up to the Problem of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies (2 #3) 200-219.
Chalmers, D.J. (1996). The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chambers, D. & Reisberg, D. (1985). Can Mental Images be Ambiguous? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance (11) 317-328.
Chappell, V. (1994). Locke's Theory of Ideas. In V. Chappell (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Locke (pp. 26-55). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chara, P.J.jr. & Verplanck, W.S. (1986). The Imagery Questionnaire: An Investigation of its Validity. Perceptual and Motor Skills (63) 915-920.
Chatterjee, A. & Southwood, M.H. (1995). Cortical Blindness and Visual Imagery. Neurology (45) 2189-2195.
Chen, S., Li, Y., & Kwok, N.M. (2011). Active Vision in Robotic Systems: A Survey of Recent Developments. International Journal of Robotics Research (30 #11) 1343-1377.
Cherry, C. (1957). On Human Communication: A Review, a Survey, and a Criticism. Boston MA: Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Churchland, P.S., Ramachandran, V.S., & Sejnowski, T.J. (1994). A Critique of Pure Vision. In C. Koch & J. Davis (Eds.), Large-Scale Neuronal Theories of the Brain (pp. 23-60). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Clark, A. (2006a). That Lonesome Whistle: A Puzzle for the Sensorimotor Model of Perceptual Experience. Analysis (66 #1) 22-25.
Clark, A. (2006b). Vision as Dance: Three Challenges for Sensorimotor Contingency Theory. Psyche (12 #1). Online publication, URL: http://www.theassc.org/files/assc/2629.pdf
Clark, A. (2009). Spreading the Joy? Why the Machinery of Consciousness is (Probably) Still in the Head. Mind (118) 963-993.
Clark, H. (1916). Visual Imagery and Attention: An Analytical Study. American Journal of Psychology (27) 461-492.
Cocking, J.M. (1991). Imagination: A Study in the History of Ideas. London: Routledge.
Collewijn, H. & Kowler, E. (2008). The Significance of Microsaccades for Vision and Oculomotor Control. Journal of Vision (8 #14: 20) 1-21. Open access online journal: http://www.journalofvision.org/content/8/14/20.full
Coltheart, M. (2006a). What Has Functional Neuroimaging Told Us About the Mind (So Far)? Cortex (42) 323-331.
Coltheart, M. (2006b). Perhaps Functional Neuroimaging Has Not Told Us Anything about the Mind (So Far). Cortex (42) 422-427.
Conway, B.R. (2009). Color Vision, Cones, and Color-Coding in the Cortex. The Neuroscientist (15 #3) 247-290.
Coppola, D. & Purves, D. (1996). The Extraordinarily Rapid Disappearance of Entoptic Images. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (93) 8001-8004.
Cornoldi, C., Logie, R.H., Brandimonte, M.A., Kaufmann, G., & Reisberg, D. (1996). Stretching the Imagination: Representation and Transformation in Mental Imagery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Coseru, C. (2009). Naturalism and Intentionality: A Buddhist Epistemological Approach. Asian Philosophy (19 #3) 239-264.
Coss R. (1969). Electro-Oculography: Drawing with the Eye. Leonardo (2) 399-401.
Cotterill, R.M.J. (1997). On the Mechanism of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies (4) 231-247.
Craik, K.J.W. (1940). Origin of Visual Afterimages. Nature (145) 512.
Crick, F. & Koch, C. (1995). Are We Aware of Neural Activity in Primary Visual Cortex? Nature (375) 121-123.
Cui, X., Jeter, C.B., Yang, D., Montague, P.R., & Eagleman, D.M. (2007). Vividness of Mental Imagery: Individual Variability Can Be Measured Objectively. Vision Research (47) 474-478.
Cukor, J., Olden, M., Lee, F., & Difede, J. (2010). Evidence-based Treatments for PTSD, New Directions, and Special Challenges. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1208) 82-89.
Cummins, R. (1997). The LOT of the Causal Theory of Mental Content. Journal of Philosophy (94) 535-542.
Dallos, P. (1992). The Active Cochlea. Journal of Neuroscience (12) 4575-4585.
Damasio, A.R. (1994). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: Putnam.
Danaher, B.G., & Thoresen, C.E. (1972). Imagery Assessment by Self-Report and Behavioural Measures. Behaviour Research and Therapy (10) 131-138.
Danto, A.C. (1968). Analytical Philosophy of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Danziger, K. (1980). The History of Introspection Reconsidered. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences (16) 241-262.
Dartnall, T. (2005). Does the World Leak into the Mind? Active Externalism, "Internalism" and Epistemology. Cognitive Science (29) 135-143.
Dartnall, T. (2007). Internalism, Active Externalism, and Nonconceptual Content: The Ins and Outs of Cognition. Cognitive Science (31) 257-283.
David, S.V., Hayden, B.Y., Mazer, J.A., & Gallant, J.L. (2008). Attention to Stimulus Features Shifts Spectral Tuning of V4 Neurons During Natural Vision. Neuron (59) 509-521.
Davidson, P.R. & Parker, K.C. (2001). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (69) 305-316.
Davies, P. (1973a). Effect of Movement upon the Appearance and Duration of a Prolonged Visual Afterimage: 1. Changes Arising from the Movement of a Portion of the Body Incorporated in the Afterimage. Perception (2) 147-153.
Davies, P. (1973b). Effect of Movement upon the Appearance and Duration of a Prolonged Visual Afterimage: 2. Changes Arising from Movement of the Observer in Relation to the Previously Afterimaged Scene. Perception (2) 155-160.
Davies, P. (1995). Visual Scotoma and Visual Afterimages: Some Evidence that the Perceived Visual Afterimage may not be a Purely Retinal Phenomenon. Perceptual and Motor Skills (81) 849-850.
Davison, A.J. & Murray, D.W. (2002). Simultaneous Localization and Map-building Using Active Vision. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (24) 865-880.
Dean, G.M. & Morris, P.E. (2003). The Relationship Between Self-Reports of Imagery and Spatial Ability. British Journal of Psychology (94) 245-273.
Deckert, G.H. (1964). Pursuit Eye Movements in the Absence of a Moving Visual Stimulus. Science (143) 1192-1193.
de Gardelle, V. & Kouider, S. (2009). Cognitive Theories of Consciousness. In W.P. Banks (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Consciousness (Vol. 1, pp.135-146). Oxford: Academic Press/Elsevier.
Dehaene, S., Changeux, J.-P., Naccache, L., Sackur, J., & Sergent, C. (2006). Conscious, Preconscious, and Subliminal Processing: A Testable Taxonomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (10) 204-211.
Demarais, A.M & Cohen, B.H. (1998). Evidence for Image-Scanning Eye Movements during Transitive Inference. Biological Psychology (49) 229-247.
Dement, W.C. & Kleitman, N. (1957). The Relation of Eye Movements During Sleep to Dream Activity: An Objective Method for the Study of Dreaming. Journal of Experimental Psychology (53) 339-346.
Dement, W. & Wolpert, E.A. (1958). The Relation of Eye Movements, Body Motility, and External Stimuli to Dream Content. Journal of Experimental Psychology (55 #6) 543-553.
Dennett, D.C. (1969). Content and Consciousness. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Dennett, D. C. (1988). Quining Qualia. In A. Marcel & E. Bisiach (Eds.), Consciousness in Contemporary Science (pp. 42-71). New York: Oxford University Press.
Dennett, D.C. (1978). Two Approaches to Mental Images. In his Brainstorms (chapter 10). Montgomery, VT: Bradford Books.
Dennett, D.C. (1991). Consciousness Explained. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
De Preester, H. (2012). The Sensory Component of Imagination: The Motor Theory of Imagination as a Present-Day Solution to Sartre's Critique. Philosophical Psychology (25 #4) 503-520.
de’Sperati, C. (2003). Precise Oculomotor Correlates of Visuospatial Mental Rotation and Circular Motion Imagery. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (15) 1244-1259.
de’Sperati, C. & Santandrea, E. (2005). Smooth Pursuit-like Eye Movements During Mental Extrapolation of Motion: The Facilitatory Effect of Drowsiness. Cognitive Brain Research (25 #1) 328-338.
Descartes, R. (1637). Optics. (Translated from the French by R. Stoothoff, in J. Cottingham, R. Stoothoff & D. Murdoch (Trans. & Eds.), The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.)
Descartes, R. (1664). L'Homme (Treatise of Man). (Facsimile of the original French, together with an English translation by T.S. Hall: Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972. [An abridged translation, by R. Stoothoff, is also available in J. Cottingham, R. Stoothoff & D. Murdoch (Trans. & Eds.), The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, Vol.1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.)]
DiVesta, F.J., Ingersoll, G., & Sunshine P. (1971). A Factor Analysis of Imagery Tests. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior (10) 471-479.
Doob, L.W. (1972). The Ubiquitous Appearance of Images. In P.W. Sheehan (Ed.), The Function and Nature of Imagery (pp. 311-332). New York: Academic Press.
Doricchi, F., Iaria, G., Silvetti, M., Figliozzi, F., & Siegler, I. (2007). The "Ways" We Look at Dreams: Evidence from Unilateral Spatial Neglect (With an Evolutionary Account of Dream Bizarreness). Experimental Brain Research (178 #4) 450-461.
Driskell, J., Copper, C., & Moran, A. (1994). Does Mental Practice Enhance Performance? Journal of Applied Psychology (79) 481-492.
Dulin, D., Hatwell, Y., Pylyshyn, Z., & Chokron, S. (2008). Effects of Peripheral and Central Visual Impairment on Mental Imagery Capacity. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (32 #8) 1396-1408.
Dunlap, K. (1914). Images and Ideas. Johns Hopkins University Circular (3 – March 1914) 25-41.
Durndell, A.J., & Wetherick, N.E. (1976a). The Relation of Reported Imagery to Cognitive Performance. British Journal of Psychology (67) 501–506.
Durndell, A.J., & Wetherick, N.E. (1976b). Reported Imagery and Two Spatial Tests. Perceptual and Motor Skills (43) 1050.
Edelman, G.M. (1992). Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of Mind. New York: Basic Books.
Ellis, R.D. (1995). Questioning Consciousness: The Interplay of Imagery, Cognition, and Emotion in the Human Brain. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Engelhard, I.M., van den Hout, M.A., Dek, E.C., Giele, C.L., van der Wielen, J.W., Reijnen, M.J., & van Roij, B. (2011). Reducing Vividness and Emotional Intensity of Recurrent "Flashforwards" by Taxing Working Memory: An Analogue Study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders (25 #4) 599-603.
Engelhard, I.M., van den Hout, M.A., Janssen, W.C., & van der Beek J. (2010). Eye Movements Reduce Vividness and Emotionality of “Flashforwards”. Behaviour Research and Therapy (48 #5), 442-447.
Ernest, C.H. (1977). Imagery Ability and Cognition: A Critical Review. Journal of Mental Imagery (2) 181-216.
Everson, S. (1997). Aristotle on Perception. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Farah, M.J. (1988). Is Visual Imagery Really Visual? Overlooked Evidence from Neuropsychology. Psychological Review (95) 307-317.
Farah, M J., Soso, M.J., & Dasheif, R.M. (1992). Visual Angle of the Mind's Eye Before and After Unilateral Occipital Lobectomy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance (18) 241-246.
Farley, A.M. (1974). VIPS: A Visual Imagery Perception System; The Result of Protocol Analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.
Farley, A.M. (1976). A Computer Implementation of Constructive Visual Imagery and Perception. In R.A. Monty J.W. Senders (Eds.) Eye Movements and Psychological Processes. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Faw, B. (1997). Outlining a Brain Model of Mental Imaging Abilities. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews (21 #3) 283-288.
Faw, B. (2009). Conflicting Intuitions May be Based on Differing Abilities: Evidence from Mental Imaging Research. Journal of Consciousness Studies (16 #4) 45-68.
Feltz, D.L. & Landers, D.M. (1983). The Effects of Mental Practice on Motor Skill Learning and Performance: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Sport Psychology (5) 25-57.
Fernald, M.R. (1912). The Diagnosis of Mental Imagery. Psychological Monographs (14 #1 – Whole #58).
Findlay, J.M., & Gilchrist, I.D. (2001). Visual Attention: The Active Vision Perspective. In M. Jenkins & L. Harris (Eds.), Vision and Attention (pp. 83-103). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Findlay, J.M. & Gilchrist, I.D. (2003). Active Vision: The Psychology of Looking and Seeing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Finke, R.A. (1989). Principles of Mental Imagery. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Finke, R.A., Pinker, S., & Farah, M.J. (1989). Reinterpreting Visual Patterns in Mental Imagery. Cognitive Science (13) 51-78.
Finke, R.A., Ward, T.B., & Smith, S.M. (1992). Creative Cognition: Theory, Research, and Applications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Firth, H. & Oswald, I. (1975). Eye Movements and Visually Active Dreams. Psychophysiology (12) 602-606.
Fish, W. (2009). Perception, Hallucination, and Illusion. New York: Oxfrd University Press.
Fish, W. (2010). Philosophy of Perception: A Contemporary Introduction. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Flew, A. (1956). Facts and ‘Imagination’. Mind (65) 392-399.
Flusberg, S.J. & Boroditsky, L. (2011). Are Things That Are Hard to Physically Move Also Hard to Imagine Moving? Psychonomic Bulletin and Review (18) 158-164.
Fodor, J.A. (1975). The Language of Thought. New York: Thomas Crowell.
Fodor, J.A. (2008). LOT 2: The Language of Thought Revisited. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fodor, J.A. & Pylyshyn, Z.W. (1988). Connectionism and Cognitive Architecture: A Critical Analysis. Cognition (28) 3-71.
Foer, J. (2006). Kaavya Syndrome: The Accused Harvard Plagiarist Doesn't have a Photographic Memory, No One Does. Slate (Online magazine), April 27, 2006. Retrieved on 8th January 2013 from http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2006/04/kaavya_syndrome.single.html
Fourtassi, M., Rode, G., Urquizar, C., Salemme R., & Pisella, L. (2011). Spontaneous Eye Movements During Visual Mental Imagery [abstract only]. Journal of Eye Movement Research (4) 149. Open access online journal: http://www.jemr.org/online/4/3/1
Fourtassi, M., Hajjioui, A., Urquizar, C., Rossetti, Y., Rode, G., & Pisella, L. (2013). Iterative Fragmentation of Cognitive Maps in a Visual Imagery Task. PLoS One (8 #7): e68560. Online open access journal: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0068560 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068560
Frede, D. (1992). The Cognitive Role of Phantasia in Aristotle. In M.C. Nussbaum & A.O. Rorty (Eds.) Essays on Aristotle's De Anima (pp. 279-295). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Freeman, W.J. (1981). A Physiological Hypothesis of Perception. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (24), 561-592.
French, C.C., Santomauro, J., Hamilton,V., Fox, R., & Thalbourne, M.A. (2008). Psychological Aspects of the Alien Contact Experience. Cortex (44, #10) 1387-1395.
Fried, P.J., Elkin-Frankston, S., Rushmore, R.J., Hilgetag, C.C., & Valero-Cabre, A. (2011). Characterization of Visual Percepts Evoked by Noninvasive Stimulation of the Human Posterior Parietal Cortex. PLoS One (6 #11): e27204. Online publication, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027204
Frisby, J.P. (1979). Seeing: Illusion, Brain and Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Frisby J.P. & Stone, J.V. (2010). Seeing: The Computational Approach to Biological Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Fritz, J.B., Elhilali, M., & Shamma, S.A. (2005). Differential Dynamic Plasticity of A1 Receptive Fields During Multiple Spectral Tasks. Journal of Neuroscience (25) 7623-7635.
Fritz, J., Shamma, S., Elhilali, M., & Klein, D. (2003). Rapid Task-Related Plasticity of Spectrotemporal Receptive Fields in Primary Auditory Cortex. Nature Neuroscience (6) 1216 - 1223.
Fry, G.A. (1969). Positive Afterimage and Measurements of Light and Dark Adaptation. American Journal of Optometry and Archives of American Academy of Optometry (460) 397-410.
Gaarder, K.R. (1975). Eye Movements, Vision and Behavior. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere.
Gaillard, R., Dehaene, S., Adam, C., Clémenceau, S., Hasboun, D., Baulac, M., Cohen, L., & Naccache, L. (2009). Converging Intracranial Markers of Conscious Access. PLoS Biology (7 #3, e61) 1-21. Online publication: doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000061 URL: http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000061
Galton, F. (1880a). Statistics of Mental Imagery. Mind (5) 301-318. Online: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Galton/imagery.htm
Galton, F. (1880b). Mental Imagery. Fortnightly Review (28) 312-324. Online: http://galton.org/bib/JournalItem.aspx_action=view_id=99
Galton, F. (1883). Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development. London: Macmillan. Online: http://galton.org/books/human-faculty/
Ganis, G., Thompson, W.L., & Kosslyn, S.M. (2004). Brain Areas Underlying Visual Mental Imagery and Visual Perception: An fMRI Study. Cognitive Brain Research (20) 226 -241.
Gardner, H. (1987). The Mind's New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution (2nd edition). New York: Basic Books.
Gbadamosi, J. & Zangemeister, W.H. (2001). Visual Imagery in Hemianopic Patients. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (13 #7) 45-56.
Georgiou, A.K.A. (2007). An Embodied Cognition View of Imagery-Based Reasoning in Science: Lessons from Thought Experiments. Croatian Journal of Philosophy (7 #2) 215-248.
Gibbs R.W. jr. (2006). Embodiment and Cognitive Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gibson, J.J. (1966). The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Gibson, J.J. (1967). New Reasons for Realism. Synthese (17) 162-172.
Gibson, J.J. (1970). On the Relation Between Hallucination and Perception. Leonardo (3) 425-427.
Gibson, J.J. (1979). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Gilbert, C.D. & Sigman, M. (2007). Brain States: Top-Down Influences in Sensory Processing. Neuron (54) 677-696.
Goldenberg, G. (1992). Loss of Visual Imagery and Loss of Visual Knowledge – A Case Study. Neuropsychologia (30) 1081-1099.
Goldenberg, G., Müllbacher, W., & Nowak, A. (1995). Imagery Without Perception – A Case Study of Anosognosia for Cortical Blindness. Neuropsychologia (33) 1375-1382.
Gómez-Moreno, J.M.U. (2011). Metaphor in Specialized Language: An English-Spanish Comparative Study in Marine Biology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Granada, Spain. Online: http://hera.ugr.es/tesisugr/19655095.pdf
Gordon, I.E. (2004). Theories of Visual Perception (3rd edition). Hove, U.K.: Psychology Press.
Gordon, R. (1949). An Investigation into Some of the Factors that Favour the Formation of Stereotyped Images. British Journal of Psychology (39) 156-167.
Gray, C.R. & Gummerman, K. (1975). The Enigmatic Eidetic Image: A Critical Examination of Methods, Data, and Theories. Psychological Bulletin (82) 383-407.
Gray, J.A. (1995). The Contents of Consciousness: a Neuropsychological Conjecture. Behavioral and Brain Sciences (18) 659-676.
Gray, J.A. (2004). Consciousness: Creeping up on the Hard Problem. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gray, R. & Tanesini, A. (2010). Perception and Action: The Taste Test. Philosophical Quarterly (60 #241) 718-734.
Gregory, R.L. (1970). The Intelligent Eye. London: Wiedenfeld & Nicolson.
Gregory, R.L. (1974). Perceptions as Hypotheses. In S.C. Brown (Ed.), Philosophy of Psychology (pp. 195-210). Macmillan: London.
Gregory, R.L., Wallace, J.G., & Campbell, F.W. (1959). Changes in the Size and Shape of Visual After-Images Observed in Complete Darkness During Changes of Position in Space. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (11) 54-55.
Griffits, C.H. (1927). Individual Differences in Imagery. Psychological Monographs (37 #3) Whole No. 172.
Grueter, T. (2006). Picture This. Scientific American Mind (17, #1) 18-23.
Grush, R. (2004). The Emulation Theory of Representation: Motor Control, Imagery, and Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences (27) 377-442.
Grüsser, O.-J. & Landis, T. (1991). Visual Agnosias and Other Disturbances of Visual Perception and Cognition. London: Macmillan.
Gunter, R.W. & Bodner, G.E. (2008). How Eye Movements Affect Unpleasant Memories: Support for a Working-Memory Account. Behaviour Research and Therapy (46) 913-931.
Gunter, R.W. & Bodner, G.E. (2009). EMDR Works . . . But How? Recent Progress in the Search for Treatment Mechanisms. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research (3 #3) 161-168.
Gur, R.C. & Hilgard, E.R. (1975). Visual Imagery and the Discrimination of Differences Between Altered Pictures Simultaneously and Successively Presented. British Journal of Psychology (66) 341-343.
Guttenplan, S. (1994). Sensation. In S. Guttenplan (Ed.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind (pp. 560-561). Oxford: Blackwell.
Haber, R.N. (1970). Imagine! They are Finally Talking about Images Again. Contemporary Psychology (15) 556-559.
Haber, R.N. (1979). Twenty Years of Haunting Eidetic Imagery: Where's the Ghost? Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2) 583-629.
Hallett, P.E. (1986). Eye Movements. In K.R. Boff, L.Kaufman & J.P. Thomas (Eds.), Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, Vol.1 (pp.10.1–10.112). New York: Wiley-Interscience.
Halpern, B. P. (1983). Tasting and Smelling as Active, Exploratory Sensory Processes. American Journal of Otolaryngology (4) 246-249.
Hamlyn D.W. (1961). Sensation and Perception: A History of the Philosophy of Perception. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Hamlyn, D.W. (1968). Koine Aisthesis. The Monist (52) 195-209.
Hamlyn, D.W. (1994). Perception. In S. Guttenplan (Ed.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind (pp. 459-462). Oxford: Blackwell.
Hampson, P.J. & Morris, P.E. (1978). Unfulfilled Expectations: A Critique of Neisser's Theory of Imagery. Cognition (6) 79-85.
Hampson, P.J. & Morris, P.E. (1979). Cyclical Processing: A Framework for Imagery Research. Journal of Mental Imagery (3) 11-22.
Hardy, L., Jones, G., & Gould, D. (1996). Understanding Psychological Preparation for Sport: Theory and Practice of Elite Performers. Chichester, NY: Wiley.
Harman, G. (1998). Intentionality. In W. Bechtel & G. Graham (Eds.), A Companion to Cognitive Science (pp. 602-610). Oxford: Blackwell.
Harnad S. (1990). The Symbol Grounding Problem. Physica D (42) 335-346.
Harnad S. (2003). Symbol-Grounding Problem. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Volume 4, pp. 277-281). London: Nature Publishing/Macmillan. (Republished in print and online in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons Inc. of Hoboken, NJ.)
Hatakeyama, T. (1981). Individual Differences in Imagery Ability and Mental Rotation. Tohoku Psychologica Folia (40) 6-23.
Hatakeyama, T. (1984). Individual Differences in Imagery Ability and Mental Size Comparison. Tohoku Psychologica Folia (43) 112-126.
Haugeland, J. (1978). The Nature and Plausibility of Cognitivism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2) 215-226.
Hayhoe, M. (2000). Vision Using Routines: A Functional Account of Vision. Visual Cognition (7) 43-64.
Hayhoe, M. & Ballard, D. (2005). Eye Movements in Natural Behavior. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (9 #4) 188-194.
Hayhoe, M.M. & Rothkopf, C.A. (2011). Vision in the Natural World. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science (2 #2) 158-166. DOI:10.1002/wcs.113
Hebb, D.O. (1960). The American Revolution. American Psychologist (15) 735-745.
Hebb, D.O. (1968). Concerning Imagery. Psychological Review (75) 466-477.
Heil, J. (1998). Philosophy of Mind. London: Routledge.
Henderson, J.M. (2003). Human Gaze Control During Real-World Scene Perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (7) 498-504.
Herbert, J.D., Lilienfeld, S.O., Lohr, J.M., Montgomery, R.W., O'Donohue, W.T., Rosen, G.M., & Tolin, D.F. (2000). Science and Pseudoscience in the Development of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: Implications for Clinical Psychology. Clinical Psychology Review (20) 945-971.
Heremans, E., Helsen, W. F., & Feys, P. (2008). The Eyes as a Mirror of Our Thoughts: Quantification of Motor Imagery Through Eye Movement Registration. Behavioural Brain Research (187 #2) 351-360.
Herman, J.H., Erman, M., Boys, R., Peiser, L.,Taylor, M.E., & Roffwarg, H.P. (1984). Evidence for a Directional Correspondence Between Eye Movements and Dream Imagery in REM Sleep. Sleep (7 #1) 52-63.
Hertlein, K.M., & Ricci, R.J. (2004). A Systematic Research Synthesis of EMDR Studies: Implementation of the Platinum Standard. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse (5) 285-300.
Heuer, F., Fischman, D., & Reisberg, D. (1986). Why Does Vivid Imagery Hurt Colour Memory? Canadian Journal of Psychology (40) 161-175.
Hilbert, D.R. (1987). Color and Color Perception: A Study in Anthropocentric Realism. Stanford, CA: CSLI.
Hinton, G. (1979). Some Demonstrations of the Effects of Structural Descriptions in Mental Imagery. Cognitive Science (3) 231-250.
Hobson, J.A. (2009). REM Sleep and Dreaming: Towards a Theory of Protoconsciousness. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience (10) 803-813.
Hobson, J.A. & McCarley, R.W. (1997). The Brain as a Dream State Generator: An Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis of the Dream Process. American Journal of Psychiatry (134 #12) 1335-1348.
Hochberg, J. (1968). In the Mind's Eye. In R.N. Haber (Ed.), Contemporary Theory and Research in Visual Perception (pp. 309-331). Holt Rinehart & Winston. New York.
Hochberg, J. (2001). In the Mind’s Eye: Perceptual Coupling and Sensorimotor Contingencies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences (24) 986.
Högberg, G., Pagani M., Sundin O., Soares J., Åberg-Wistedt, A., Tärnell, B., & Hällström, T. (2007). On Treatment with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing of Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Public Transportation Workers – A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry (61) 54-61.
Högberg, G., Pagani, M., Sundin, O., Soares, J., Aberg-Wistedt, A., Tärnell, B., & Hällström, T. (2008). Treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: Outcome Is Stable in 35-month Follow-Up. Psychiatry Research (159) 101-108.
Holcombe, A.O., MacLeod, D.I.A., & Mitten, S.T. (2004). Positive Afterimages Caused by a Filled-in Representation [abstract only]. Presentation at Vision Sciences Society Meeting, Sarasota, FL, April 30 - May 5, 2004. Abstract published in Journal of Vision (4 #8) Article 485. Online publication, URL: http://journalofvision.org/4/8/485/ doi: 10.1167/4.8.485
Holmes, G. (1918). Disturbances of Vision by Cerebral Lesions. British Journal of Ophthalmology (2) 353-384.
Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & van de Weijer, J. (2011). Eye Tracking: A Comprehensive Guide to Methods and Measures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Holšánová, J. (2008). Discourse, Vision, and Cognition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Holšánová, J. (2010). How We Focus Attention in Picture Viewing, Picture Description and Mental Imagery. In K. Sachs-Hombach & R. Totzke (Eds.), Bilder - Sehen - Denken. Cologne, Germany: Herbert von Halem Verlag.
Holšánová, J., Andersson, R., Johansson, R., Holmqvist K., & Strömqvist S. (2010). Lund Eye Tracking Studies in Research on Language and Cognition. Slovo a Slovesnost (71) 317-328.
Holt, R.R. (1964). Imagery: The Return of the Ostracised. American Psychologist (19) 254-266.
Hong, C.C.-H., Gillin, J.C., Dow, B.M., Wu, J., & Buchsbaum, M.S. (1995). Localized and Lateralized Cerebral Glucose Metabolism Associated with Eye Movements During REM Sleep and Wakefulness: A Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Study. Sleep (18) 570-580.
Hong, C.C.-H., Harris, J.C., Pearlson, G.D., Kim, J.-S., Calhoun, V.D., Fallon, J.H., Golay, X., Gillen, J.S., Simmonds, D.J., van Zijl, P.C.M., Zee, D.S., & Pekar, J.J. (2009). fMRI Evidence for Multisensory Recruitment Associated With Rapid Eye Movements During Sleep. Human Brain Mapping (30 #5) 1705-1722.
Hong, C.C.-H., Potkin, S.G., Antrobus, J.S., Dow, B.M., Callaghan, G.M., & Gillin, J.C. (1997). REM Sleep Eye Movement Counts Correlate with Visual Imagery in Dreaming: A Pilot Study. Psychophysiology (34) 377-381.
Hornsveld, H.K., Houtveen, J.H., Vroomen, M., Aalbers, I.K.D., Aalbers, D., & van den Hout M.A. (2011). Evaluating the Effect of Eye Movements on Positive Memories Such as Those Used in Resource Development and Installation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research (5 #4) 146-155.
Horridge, A. (1997). Pattern and 3D Vision of Insects. In Y. Aloimonos (Ed.), Visual Navigation: From Biological Systems to Unmanned Ground Vehicles (pp. 26-59). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Horridge, G.A. (1987). The Evolution of Visual Processing and the Construction of Seeing Systems. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (B230) 279-292.
Horst, S.W. (1996). Symbols, Computation and Intentionality: A Critique of the Computational Theory of Mind. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Horst, S.W. (1999). Symbols and Computation: A Critique of the Computational Theory of Mind. Minds and Machines (9) 347-381.
Horst, S.W. (2011). The Computational Theory of Mind. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2011 Edition). Stanford, CA: CSLI. Online publication: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2011/entries/computational-mind/
Howard, R.J., ffytche, D.H., Barnes, J., McKeefry, D., Ha, Y., Woodruff, P.W., Bullmore, E.T., Simmons, A., Williams, S.C.R., David, A.S., & Brammer, M. (1998). The Functional Anatomy of Imagining and Perceiving Colour. NeuroReport (9) 1019–1023.
Hubel, D.H. & Wiesel, T.N. (1979). Brain Mechanisms of Vision. Scientific American (241 #3, September, 1979) 130-144.
Hume, D. (1740). A Treatise of Human Nature. (2nd Oxford edition, edited by L.A. Selby-Bigge & P.H. Nidditch. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.)
Hume, D. (1748). An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. (Edited by E. Steinberg. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1977.)
Humphrey, K. & Underwood, G. (2008). Fixation Sequences in Imagery and in Recognition During the Processing of Pictures of Real-world Scenes. Journal of Eye Movement Research (2 #2) Article 3: 1-15. Open access online journal: http://www.jemr.org/online/2/2/3
Hupé, J.-M., Bordier, C. & Dojat, M. (2012). A BOLD Signature of Eyeblinks in the Visual Cortex. NeuroImage (61 #1) 149-161.
Husbands, P., Harvey, I., & Cliff, D. (1995). Circle in the Round: State Space Attractors for Evolved Sighted Robots. Robotics and Autonomous Systems (15) 83-106.
Ironson, G., Freund, B., Strauss, J.L., & Williams, J. (2002). Comparison of Two Treatments for Traumatic Stress: A Community Based Study of EMDR and Prolonged Exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology (58) 113-128.
Isaac, A., Russell, D., & Marks, D. (1986). Imagery and Mental Practice in Trampoline Skill Acquisition. In D.G. Russell, D.F. Marks, & J.T.E. Richardson (Eds.). Imagery 2 (pp. 242-244). Dunedin, New Zealand: Human Performance Associates.
Ishai, A. & Sagi, D. (1995). Common Mechanisms of Visual Imagery and Perception. Science (268) 1772-1774.
Jack, A.I., Sylvester, C.M., & Corbetta, M. (2006). Losing Our Brainless Minds: How Neuroimaging Informs Cognition. Cortex (42) 418-421.
Jacob, P. (2010). Intentionality. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Online publication, URL: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/intentionality/
Jacobs, L., Feldman, M., & Bender, M.B. (1972). Are the Eye Movements of Dreaming Sleep Related to the Visual Images of the Dreams? Psychophysiology (9) 393-401.
Jacobson, E. (1932). Electrophysiology of Mental Activities. American Journal of Psychology (44) 677-694.
Jaensch, E.R. (1930). Eidetic Imagery: And Typological Methods of Investigation (Translated from the German by O.A. Osser). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Jastrow, J. (1899). The Mind's Eye. Appleton's Popular Science Monthly (54) 299-312.
Jeannerod, M. (1994). The Representing Brain: Neural Correlates of Motor Intention and Imagery. Behavioral and Brain Sciences (17) 187-245.
Jeannerod, M. (1995). Mental Imagery in the Motor Context. Neuropsychologia (33) 1419-1432.
Jedlic, B., Hall, N., Munroe-Chandler, K., & Hall, C. (2007). Coaches’ Encouragement of Athletes’ Imagery Use. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (78) 351-363.
Jehee, J.F.M., Brady, D.K., & Tong, F. (2011). Attention Improves Encoding of Task-Relevant Features in the Human Visual Cortex. Journal of Neuroscience (31 #22) 8210-8219.
Jékely, G., Colombelli, J., Hausen, H., Guy, K., Stelzer, E., Nédélec, F., & Arendt, D. (2008). Mechanism of Phototaxis in Marine Zooplankton. Nature (456) 395-399.
Johansson, R., Holšánová, J., Dewhurst, R. & Holmqvist, K. (2012). Eye Movements During Pictorial Recall Have a Functional Role, but They Are Not Reinstatements of Those from Encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance (38 #5) 1289-1314.
Johansson, R., Holšánová, J., & Holmqvist, K. (2005). What Do Eye Movements Reveal About Mental Imagery? Evidence From Visual and Verbal Elicitations. In B.G. Bara, L. Barsalou, & M. Bucciarelli (Eds.), Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1054-1059). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Online: http://www.psych.unito.it/csc/cogsci05/frame/poster/3/f491-johansson.pdf
Johansson, R., Holšánová, J., & Holmqvist, K. (2006). Pictures and Spoken Descriptions Elicit Similar Eye Movements During Mental Imagery, Both in Light and in Complete Darkness. Cognitive Science (30) 1053-1079.
Johansson, R., Holšánová, J., & Holmqvist, K. (2010). Eye Movements During Mental Imagery are Not Reenactments of Perception. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Cognition in Flux: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Portland, Oregon, 2010 (pp. 1968-1973). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. Online: http://mindmodeling.org/cogsci2010/papers/0478/index.html
Johansson, R., Holšánová, J., & Holmqvist, K. (2011). The Dispersion of Eye Movements During Visual Imagery is Related to Individual Differences in Spatial Imagery Ability. In L. Carlson, C. Hoelscher, & T.F. Shipley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1200-1205). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. Online: http://mindmodeling.org/cogsci2011/papers/0284/index.html
John, E.R. (2002). The Neurophysics of Consciousness. Brain Research Reviews (39) 1-28.
Johnson, M. (1987). The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jonikaitis, D., Deubel, H., & de’Sperati, C. (2009). Time Gaps in Mental Imagery Introduced by Competing Saccadic Tasks. Vision Research (49) 2164-2175.
Juhasz, J.B. (1969). Imagining, Imitation and Role Taking. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
Juhasz, J.B. (1972). An Experimental Study of Imagining. Journal of Personality (40) 588-600.
Julstrom, B. A., & Baron, R. J. (1985). A Model of Mental Imagery. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies (23) 313-334.
Justman, S. (2011). The Power of Rhetoric: Two Healing Movements. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine (84 #1) 15-25.
Kagan, I. (2012). Active Vision: Fixational Eye Movements Help Seeing Space in Time. Current Biology (22) R186-R188.
Kagan, I., Gur, M., & Snodderly, D.M. (2008). Saccades and Drifts Differentially Modulate Neuronal Activity in V1: Effects of Retinal Image Motion, Position, and Extraretinal Influences, Journal of Vision (8 #14:19) 1-25. Open access online journal: http://journalofvision.org/8/14/19/ [doi:10.1167/8.14.19]
Kahn, C.H. (1966). Sensation and Consciousness in Aristotle's Psychology. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie (48) 43-81.
Kastner, S., Pinsk, M.A., De Weerd, P., Desimone, R., & Ungerleider, L.G. (1999). Increased Activity in Human Visual Cortex During Directed Attention in the Absence of Visual Stimulation. Neuron (22) 751-761.
Kar, K. & Krekelberg, B. (2012). Transcranial Electrical Stimulation over Visual Cortex Evokes Phosphenes with a Retinal Origin. Journal of Neurophysiology (108 #8) 2173-2178. doi:10.1152/jn.00505.2012
Katkere, A. & Jain, R. (1996). A Framework for Information Assimilation. In M.S. Landy, L.T. Maloney & M. Pavel (Eds.), Exploratory Vision: The Active Eye (pp. 241-256). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Kaufmann, G. (1981). What is Wrong with Imagery Questionnaires? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology (22) 59-64.
Kaufmann, G. (1983). How Good are Imagery Questionnaires? A Rejoinder to David Marks. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology (24) 247-249.
Kavanagh, D.J., Freese, S., Andrade, J., & May, J. (2001). Effects of Visuospatial Tasks on Desensitization to Emotive Memories. British Journal of Clinical Psychology (40) 267-280.
Kay, K.N. & Gallant J.L. (2009). I Can See What You See. Nature: Neuroscience (12 #3) 245-246.
Kay, K.N., Naselaris, T., Prenger, R.J., & Gallant, J.L. (2008). Identifying Natural Images from Human Brain Activity. Nature (452) 352-355.
Kearney, R. (1988). The Wake of Imagination: Ideas of Creativity in Western Culture. London: Hutchinson.
Kelly, S.P., Gomez-Ramirez, M., & Foxe, J.J. (2008). Spatial Attention Modulates Initial Afferent Activity in Human Primary Visual Cortex. Cerebral Cortex (18) 2629-2636.
Kemp, M., Drummond, P., & McDermott, B. (2010). A Wait-List Controlled Pilot Study of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for Children with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms from Motor Vehicle Accidents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry (15 #1) 5-25.
Kemps, E., & Tiggemann, M. (2007). Reducing the Vividness and Emotional Impact of Distressing Autobiographical Memories: The Importance of Modality-Specific Interference. Memory (15) 412-422.
Kessel, F.S. (1972). Imagery: A Dimension of Mind Rediscovered. British Journal of Psychology (63) 149-162.
Kieras, D. (1978). Beyond Pictures and Words: Alternative Information-Processing Models for Imagery Effects in Verbal Memory. Psychological Bulletin (85) 532-554.
Kiverstein, J. (2007). Could a Robot Have a Subjective Point Of View? Journal of Consciousness Studies (14 #7) 128-140.
Kiverstein, J. (2010). Sensorimotor Knowledge and the Contents of Experience. In N. Gangopadhyay, M. Madary, & F. Spicer (Eds.), Perception, Action, and Consciousness: Sensorimotor Dynamics and Two Visual Systems (pp. 257-273). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Klein, C. (2010). Images Are Not the Evidence in Neuroimaging. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (61) 265- 278.
Kleiter, I., Luerding, R., Diendorfer, G., Rek, H., Bogdahn, U., & Schalke, B. (2007). A Lightning Strike to the Head Causing a Visual Cortex Defect with Simple and Complex Visual Hallucinations. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry (78) 423-426.
Knutsen, P.M. & Ahissar, E. (2009). Orthogonal Coding of Object Location. Trends in Neurosciences (32 #2) 101-109.
Ko, H.K., Poletti, M., & Rucci, M. (2010). Microsaccades Precisely Relocate Gaze in a High Visual Acuity Task. Nature Neuroscience (13) 1549-1553.
Koch, C. (2003). The Quest for Consciousness: A Neurobiological Approach. Englewood, CO: Roberts & Co.
Köhler, W. (1920). Die Physischen Gestalten in Ruhe und im Stationären Zustand. Erlangen, Germany: Vieweg. (Abridged English translation as “Physical Gestalten” in W.D. Ellis (Ed.), A Source Book of Gestalt Psychology (pp. 17-54). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1938).
Köhler, W. (1929). Gestalt Psychology. New York: Liveright.
Köhler, W. (1940). Dynamics in Psychology. New York: Liveright.
Kölmel, H.W. (1985). Complex Visual Hallucinations in the Hemianopic Field. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry (48) 29-38.
Kosman, L.A. (1975). Perceiving that we Perceive: On The Soul III.2. Philosophical Review (84) 499-519.
Kosslyn, S.M. (1975). Information Representation in Visual Images. Cognitive Psychology (7) 341-370.
Kosslyn, S.M. (1980). Image and Mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kosslyn, S.M. (1981). The Medium and the Message in Mental Imagery: A Theory. Psychological Review (88) 46-66.
Kosslyn, S.M. (1983). Ghosts in the Mind's Machine: Creating and Using Images in the Brain. New York: Norton.
Kosslyn, S.M. (1992). Cognitive Neuroscience and the Human Self. In A. Harrington (Ed.), So Human a Brain: Knowledge and Values in the Neurosciences (pp. 37-56). New York: Pergamon.
Kosslyn, S.M. (1994). Image and Brain: The Resolution of the Imagery Debate. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kosslyn, S.M. (2001). Visual Consciousness. In P. Grossenbacher (Ed.), Finding Consciousness in the Brain (pp. 79-103). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kosslyn, S.M. (2005). Mental Images and the Brain. Cognitive Neuropsychology (22) 333-347.
Kosslyn, S.M., Ball, T.M., & Reiser, B.J. (1978). Visual Images Preserve Metric Spatial Information: Evidence from Studies of Image Scanning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance (4) 47-60.
Kosslyn, S.M., Brunn, J.L., Cave, K.R., & Wallach, R.W. (1984). Individual Differences in Mental Imagery Ability: A Computational Analysis. Cognition (18) 195-243.
Kosslyn, S.M., Flynn, R.A., Amsterdam, J.B., & Wang, G. (1990). Components of High-Level Vision: A Cognitive Neuroscience Analysis and Accounts of Neurological Syndromes. Cognition (34) 203-277.
Kosslyn, S.M., Pinker, S., Smith, G.E., & Shwartz, S.P. (1979). On the Demystification of Mental Imagery. Behavioral & Brain Sciences (2) 535-581.
Kosslyn, S.M. & Pomerantz, J.R. (1977). Imagery, Propositions and the Form of Internal Representations. Cognitive Psychology (9) 52-76.
Kosslyn, S.M., Shin, L.M., Thompson, W.L., McNally, R.J., Rauch, S.L., Pitman, R.K., & Alpert, N.M. (1996). Neural Effects of Visualizing and Perceiving Aversive Stimuli: A PET Investigation. NeuroReport (7 #10) 1569-1576.
Kosslyn, S.M. & Shwartz, S.P. (1977). A Simulation of Visual Imagery. Cognitive Science (1) 265-295.
Kosslyn, S.M. & Thompson, W.L. (2003). When is Early Visual Cortex Activated During Visual Imagery? Psychological Bulletin (129) 723-746.
Kosslyn, S.M., Thompson, W.L., & Ganis, G. (2006). The Case for Mental Imagery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kosslyn, S.M., Thompson. W.L., Sukel, K.E., & Alpert, N.M. (2005). Two Types of Image Generation: Evidence from PET. Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience (5) 41-53.
Kouider, S. & Dehaene, S. (2007). Levels of Processing During Non-conscious Perception: A Critical Review of Visual Masking. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (B362) 857-875.
Koulack, D. (1972). Rapid Eye Movements and Visual Imagery During Sleep. Psychological Bulletin (78) 155-158.
Kriegeskorte, N., Simmons, W.K., Bellgowan, P.S.F., & Baker, C.I. (2009). Circular Analysis in Systems Neuroscience: The Dangers of Double Dipping. Nature: Neuroscience. (12 #5) 536-540.
Kuang, X., Poletti, M., Victor, J.D., & Rucci, M. (2012). Temporal Encoding of Spatial Information During Active Visual Fixation. Current Biology (22) 510-514.
Kubovy, M. (2003). Phenomenology, Psychological. In L. Nadel (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Vol. 3, pp. 579-586). London: Nature Publishing/Macmillan.
Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kuuva, S. (2007). Content-Based Approach to Experiencing Visual Art. Jyväskylä Studies in Computing (76). Online: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-39-2850-6
Kveraga, K., Ghuman, A.S., & Bar, M. (2007). Top-Down Predictions in the Cognitive Brain. Brain and Cognition (65 #2) 145-168.
Lachman, R., Lachman, J.L., & Butterfield, E.C. (1979). Cognitive Psychology and Information Processing: An Introduction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ladd, G.T. (1892). Contribution to the Psychology of Visual Dreams. Mind, N.S. (1) 299-304.
Laeng, B. & Teodorescu, D.-S. (2002). Eye Scanpaths During Visual Imagery Reenact those of Perception of the Same Visual Scene. Cognitive Science (26) 207-231.
Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic Books.
Lamme, V.A.F. & Roelfsema, P.R. (2000). The Distinct Modes of Vision Offered by Feedforward and Recurrent Processing. Trends in Neurosciences (23) 571-579.
Lamme, V.A.F., Super, H., Landman, R., Roelfsema, P.R., & Spekreijse, H. (2000). The Role of Primary Visual Cortex (V1) in Visual Awareness. Vision Research (40) 1507-1521.
Lance, J.W. (1976). Simple Formed Hallucinations Confined to the Area of a Specific Visual Field Defect. Brain (99) 719-734.
Land, M. (1990). Vision in Other Animals. In H. Barlow, C. Blakemore, & M. Weston-Smith (Eds.), Images and Understanding (pp. 197-212). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Land, M.F. (1999). Motion and Vision: Why Animals Move Their Eyes. Journal of Comparative Physiology (A185) 341-352.
Land, M.F. (2006). Eye Movements and the Control of Actions in Everyday Life. Progress in Retinal & Eye Research (25) 296-324.
Land, M.F. & Furneaux, S. (1997). The Knowledge Base of the Oculomotor System. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (B352) 1231-1239.
Land, M.F. & Tatler, B.W. (2009). Looking and Acting: Vision and Eye Movements in Natural Behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Landy, M.S., Maloney, L.T., & Pavel, M. (Eds.) (1996). Exploratory Vision: The Active Eye. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Lang, P.J. (1979). A Bio-Informational Theory of Emotional Imagery. Psychophysiology (16) 495-512.
Le Morvan, P. (2004). Arguments Against Direct Realism and How to Counter Them. American Philosophical Quarterly (41 #3) 221-234.
Leahey, T.H. (1992). The Mythical Revolutions of American Psychology. American Psychologist (47) 308-318.
Leclair-Visonneau, L., Oudiette, D., Gaymard, B., Leu-Semenescu, S., & Arnulf, I. (2010). Do the Eyes Scan Dream Images During Rapid Eye Movement Sleep? Evidence from the Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorder Model. Brain (133) 1737-1746.
Lederman, S. J., & Klatzky R. (1990). Haptic Exploration and Object Representation. In M.A. Goodale (Ed.), Vision and Action: The Control of Grasping (pp. 98-109). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Lee, C.W., & Drummond, P.D. (2008). Effects of Eye Movement Versus Therapist Instructions on the Processing of Distressing Memories. Journal of Anxiety Disorders (22 #5) 801-808.
Lenox, J.R., Lange, A.F., & Graham, K.R. (1970). Eye Movement Amplitudes in Imagined Pursuit of a Pendulum with Eyes Closed. Psychophysiology (6) 773-777.
Li, W., Piëch, V., & Gilbert, C.D. (2004). Perceptual Learning and Top-Down Influences in Primary Visual Cortex. Nature Neuroscience (7 #6) 651-657.
Lieberman, M.D., Berkman, E.T., & Wager, T.D. (2009). Correlations in Social Neuroscience Aren’t Voodoo: Commentary on Vul et al. (2009). Perspectives on Psychological Science (4) 299-307.
Lieberman, M.D. & Cunningham, W.A. (2009). Type I and Type II Error Concerns in fMRI Research: Re-Balancing the Scale. Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience (4 #4) 423-428.
Lilley, S.A., Andrade, J., Turpin, G., Sabin-Farrell, R., & Holmes, E.A. (2009). Visuospatial Working Memory Interference with Recollections of Trauma. British Journal of Clinical Psychology (48) 309-321.
Lindsay, P.H. & Norman, D.A. (1972). Human Information Processing: An Introduction to Psychology. New York: Academic Press.
Liu, T., Larsson, J., & Carrasco, M. (2007). Feature-Based Attention Modulates Orientation-Selective Responses in Human Visual Cortex. Neuron (55) 313-323.
Logothetis, N.K. (2008). What We Can Do and What We Cannot Do with fMRI. Nature (453) 869-878.
Lohr, J.M., Lilienfeld, S.O., Tolin, D.F., & Herbert, J.D. (1999). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: An Analysis of Specific Versus Nonspecific Treatment Factors. Journal of Anxiety Disorders (13) 185-207.
Lohr, J.M., Tolin, D.F., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (1998). Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: Implications for Behavior Therapy. Behavior Therapy (29) 123-156.
Lowe, E.J. (2005). Locke. London: Routledge.
Lungarella. M. & Sporns, O. (2006). Mapping Information Flow in Sensorimotor Networks. PLoS Computational Biology (2 #10) e144. Online publication: http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.0020144
Lycan, W.G. (2006). Enactive Intentionality. Psyche (12, #3). Online publication, URL: http://www.theassc.org/files/assc/2643.pdf
Lycos, K. (1964). Plato and Aristotle on ‘Appearing’. Mind (73) 496-514.
Magnani, L. (2004). Creative Abduction as Active Shaping of Knowledge: Epistemic and Ethical Mediators. In K. Forbus, D. Gentner & T. Regier (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 879-884). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Online at: http://www.cogsci.northwestern.edu/cogsci2004/papers/paper249.pdf
Magnani, L. (2006). Multimodal Abduction: External Semiotic Anchors and Hybrid Representations. Logic Journal of the IGPL (14 #2) 107-136.
Magnani, L. (2011). External Diagrammatization and Iconic Brain Co-Evolution. Semiotica (2011 #186) 213-238.
Mainland, J. & Sobel, N. (2006). The Sniff is Part of the Olfactory Percept. Chemical Senses (31) 181-196.
Mandler, G. (2007). A History of Modern Experimental Psychology: From James and Wundt to Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Mangan, B. (2001). Sensation's Ghost: The Non-Sensory “Fringe” of Consciousness. Psyche (7). Online publication: http://www.theassc.org/files/assc/2509.pdf
Marcel, A.J. (1983). Conscious and Unconscious Perception: an Approach to the Relations Between Phenomenal Experience and Perceptual Processes. Cognitive Psychology (15) 238-300.
Marks, D.F. (1973). Visual Imagery Differences in the Recall of Pictures. British Journal of Psychology (64) 17-24.
Marks, D.F. (1977). Imagery and Consciousness: A Theoretical Review from an Individual Differences Perspective. Journal of Mental Imagery (1) 275-290.
Marks, D.F. (1983a). Mental Imagery and Consciousness: A Theoretical Review. In A.A. Sheikh (Ed.) Imagery: Current Theory, Research, and Application (pp. 96-130). New York: Wiley.
Marks, D.F. (1983b). In Defence of Imagery Questionnaires. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology (24) 243-246.
Marks, D.F. (1989). Bibliography of Research Utilising the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire. Perceptual and Motor Skills (69) 707–718.
Marks, D.F. (1999). Consciousness, Mental Imagery and Action. British Journal of Psychology (90) 567-585.
Marr, D. (1982). Vision. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.
Martarelli, C.S. & Mast F.W. (2011). Preschool Children’s Eye-movements During Pictorial Recall. British Journal of Developmental Psychology (29) 425-436.
Martin, C.B. (2008). The Mind in Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Martinez-Conde, S. (2009). Eye Movements During Fixation. In E.B. Goldstein (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Perception, Vol. 1 (pp. 438-439, xlii). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Press.
Martinez-Conde, S. & Macknik, S.L. (2007). Windows on the Mind. Scientific American (August 2007) 56-63.
Martinez-Conde, S., Macknik, S.L., Hubel, D.H. (2004). The Role of Fixational Eye Movements in Visual Perception. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience (5) 229-240.
Mast, F.W. & Kosslyn, S.M. (2002a). Visual Mental Images Can Be Ambiguous: Insights from Individual Differences in Spatial Transformation Abilities. Cognition (86) 57-70.
Mast, F.W. & Kosslyn, S.M. (2002b). Eye Movements During Visual Mental Imagery. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (6) 271-272.
Maunsell, J.H., and Treue, S. (2006). Feature-Based Attention in Visual Cortex. Trends in Neurosciences (29) 317-322.
Maxfield, L., Melnyk, W.T., & Hayman, G.C.A. (2008). A Working Memory Explanation for the Effects of Eye Movements in EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research (2) 247-261.
McAlonan, K., Cavanaugh, J., & Wurtz, R.H. (2008). Guarding the Gateway to Cortex with Attention in Visual Thalamus. Nature (456) 391-394.
McCabe, D.P., & Castel, A.D. (2008). Seeing Is Believing: The Effect of Brain Images on Judgments of Scientific Reasoning. Cognition (107) 343-352.
McFadden, J. (2002a). Synchronous Firing and its Influence on the Brain's Electromagnetic Field: Evidence for an Electromagnetic Field Theory of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies (9 #4) 23-50.
McFadden, J. (2002b). The Conscious Electromagnetic Information (CEMI) Field Theory: The Hard Problem Made Easy? Journal of Consciousness Studies (9 #8) 45-60.
McFadden, J. (2007). Conscious Electromagnetic (CEMI) Field Theory. NeuroQuantology (5 #3) 262-270.
McGinn, C. (2004). Mindsight: Image, Dream, Meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McKellar, P. (1957). Imagination and Thinking. London: Cohen & West.
McMahon, C.E. (1973). Images as Motives and Motivators: A Historical Perspective. American Journal of Psychology (86) 465-90.
McManus, J.N.J., Li, W., & Gilbert, C.D. (2011). Adaptive Shape Processing in Primary Visual Cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. (108 #24) 9739-9746.
McNally, R. (1999). EMDR and Mesmerism: A Comparative Historical Analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders (13) 225-236.
Meijsing, M. (2006). Being Ourselves and Knowing Ourselves: An Adverbial Account of Mental Representations. Consciousness and Cognition (15) 605-619.
Mel, B.W. (1986). A Connectionist Learning Model for 3- Dimensional Mental Rotation, Zoom, and Pan. In Program of the Eighth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Mel, B.W. (1990). Connectionist Robot Motor Planning. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Merckelbach, H., & Van de Ven, V. (2001). Another White Christmas: Fantasy Proneness and Reports of ‘Hallucinatory Experiences’ in Undergraduate Students. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry (32, #3) 137 -144.
Merritt, J.O. (1979). None in a Million: Results of Mass Screening for Eidetic Ability Using Objective Tests Published in Newspapers and Magazines. Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2) 612.
Meyer, B.U., Diehl, R., Steinmetz, H., Britton, T.C., & Benecke, R. (1991). Magnetic Stimuli Applied over Motor and Visual Cortex: Influence of Coil Position and Field Polarity on Motor Responses, Phosphenes, and Eye Movements. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Supplement (43) 121-134.
Meyer, K. (2011). Primary Sensory Cortices, Top-down Projections and Conscious Experience. Progress in Neurobiology (94 #4) 408-417.
Miller, G. (2008). Growing Pains for fMRI. Science (320) 1412-1414.
Mintz, S. & Alpert, M. (1972). Imagery Vividness, Reality Testing and Schizophrenic Hallucinations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology (79) 310–316.
Mitchison, G. (1996) Where Is the Mind's Eye? Current Biology (6) 508-510.
Miyawaki, Y., Uchida, H., Yamashita, O.,Sato, M., Morito, Y., Tanabe, H.C., Sadato, N. Kamitani, Y. (2008). Visual Image Reconstruction from Human Brain Activity Using a Combination of Multiscale Local Image Decoders. Neuron (60 #5) 915-929.
Modrak, D.K.W. (1981a) An Aristotelian Theory of Consciousness? Ancient Philosophy (1) 160-170.
Modrak, D.K.W. (1981b). Koine Aisthesis and the Discrimination of Individual Differences in De Anima III.2. Canadian Journal of Philosophy (11) 405-23.
Modrak, D.K.W. (1986). Phantasia Reconsidered. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie (68) 47-69.
Modrak, D.K.W. (1987). Aristotle: The Power of Perception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Modrak, D.K.W. (2001). Aristotle's Theory of Language and Meaning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Monsma, E.V., Trier, C., Perreault, M.E., Seiler, B.D., Torres-McGehee, T.M., Steinberg, J., & Short, S.E. (2011). The Cognitive and Motivational Functions of Imagery Among Athletic Trainers. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity (6 #1:5). DOI:10.2202/1932-0191.1064
Moran, T.P. (1973). The Symbolic Imagery Hypothesis: A Production System Model. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. (University Microfilms 74-14,657.)
Moro, S.I., Tolboom, M., Khayat, P.S., & Roelfsema, P.R. (2010). Neuronal Activity in the Visual Cortex Reveals the Temporal Order of Cognitive Operations. Journal of Neuroscience (30 #48) 16293-16303.
Moro, V., Berlucchi, G., Lerch, J., Tomaiuolo, F., & Aglioti, S.M. (2008). Selective Deficit of Mental Visual Imagery with Intact Primary Visual Cortex and Visual Perception. Cortex (44) 109-118.
Morsh, J.E. & Abbott, H.D. (1945). An Investigation of After-Images. Journal of Comparative Psychology (38 #1) 47-63.
Munneke, J., Heslenfeld, D.J., & Theeuwes, J. (2008). Directing Attention to a Location in Space Results in Retinotopic Activation in Primary Visual Cortex. Brain Research (1222) 184-191.
Murphy, S.M.. (1994) Imagery Interventions in Sport. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise (26) 486-494.
Morris, P.E. & Hampson, P.J. (1983). Imagery and Consciousness. Academic Press. London.
Morris, T., Spittle, M., & Watt, A.P. (2005). Imagery In Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Moskowitz, E. & Berger, R. (1969). Rapid Eye Movements and Dream Imagery: Are They Related? Nature (224) 613-614.
Myin, E. & Hutto, D.D. (2009). Enacting is Enough. Psyche (15 #1),.Online publication, URL: http://www.theassc.org/files/assc/2575.pdf
Naselaris, T., Prenger, R.J., Kay, K.N., Oliver, M., & Gallant, J.L. (2009). Bayesian Reconstruction of Natural Images from Human Brain Activity. Neuron (63) 902-915.
Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Neisser, U. (1970). Visual Imagery as Process and as Experience. In J.S. Antrobus (Ed.), Cognition and Affect (pp. 159-178). Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.
Neisser, U. (1972). A Paradigm Shift in Psychology. Science (176) 628-630.
Neisser, U. (1976). Cognition and Reality. San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman.
Neisser, U. (1978a). Anticipations, Images and Introspection. Cognition (6) 167-174.
Neisser, U. (1978b). Perceiving, Anticipating and Imagining. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science (9) 89-106.
Neisser, U. (1979). Images, Models, and Human Nature. Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2) 561.
Nemirovsky, R., Borba, M., & Dimattia, C. (2004). Introduction: PME Special Issue: Bodily Activity and Imagination in Mathematics Learning. Educational Studies in Mathematics (57) 303-305.
Newell, A. (1972). A Theoretical Exploration of Mechanisms for Coding the Stimulus. In A.W. Melton & E. Martin (Eds.), Coding Processes in Human Memory (pp. 373-434). Washington D.C.: Winston.
Newell, A. (1981). Physical Symbol Systems. In D.A. Norman (Ed.). Perspectives on Cognitive Science (pp. 37-85). Norwood NJ/Hillsdale NJ: Ablex/Erlbaum.
Newell, A., Shaw, J.C., & Simon, H.A. (1958). Elements of a Theory of Human Problem Solving. Psychological Review (65 #3) 151-166.
Newton, N. (1993). The Sensorimotor Theory of Cognition. Pragmatics and Cognition (1) 267-305.
Newton, N. (1996). Foundations of Understanding. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Nichols, T.E., & Poline, J.-B. (2009). Commentary on Vul et al.'s (2009) "Puzzlingly High Correlations in fMRI Studies of Emotion, Personality, and Social Cognition". Perspectives on Psychological Science (4) 291-293.
Nieuwenhuis, S., Forstmann, B.U., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2011). Erroneous Analyses of Interactions in Neuroscience: A Problem of Significance. Nature: Neuroscience (14 #9) 1097-6256. DOI: 10.1038/nn.2886
Nishimoto, S., Vu, A.T., Naselaris, T., Benjamini, Y., Yu, B., & Gallant, J.L. (2011). Reconstructing Visual Experiences from Brain Activity Evoked by Natural Movies. Current Biology (21 #19) 1641-1646.
Nitschke, J.B., Dixon, G.E., Sarinopoulos, I., Short, S.J., Cohen, J.D., Smith, E.E., Kosslyn, S.M., Rose, R.M., & Davidson, R.J. (2006). Altering Expectancy Dampens Neural Response to Aversive Taste in Primary Taste Cortex. Nature Neuroscience (9) 435-442.
Noë, A. (2002). Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion? Journal of Consciousness Studies (9 #5-6) 1-12.
Noë, A. (2004). Action in Perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Noë, A. (2009). Out of Our Heads: Why You are Not Your Brain and Other Lessons from the Biology of Consciousness. New York: Hill and Wang.
Noë, A. (2012). Varieties of Presence. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nolfi, S. & Marocco, D. (2002). Active Perception: A Sensorimotor Account of Object Categorization. In B. Hallam, D. Floreano, J. Hallam, G. Hayes, & J.-A. Meyer (Eds.), From Animals to Animats 7: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (pp. 266-271). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Nordin, S.M., Cumming, J., Vincent, J., & McGrory, S. (2006). Mental Practice or Spontaneous Play? Examining Which Types of Imagery Constitute Deliberate Practice in Sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology (18 #4) 345-362.
Noton, D. (1970). A Theory of Visual Pattern Perception. IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics (6) 349-357.
Noton, D. & Stark, L. (1971a). Scanpath in Eye Movements During Pattern Perception. Science (171) 308-311.
Noton, D. & Stark, L. (1971b). Eye Movements and Visual Perception. Scientific American (224 #6) 34-43.
Noton, D. & Stark, L. (1971c). Scanpaths in Saccadic Eye Movements While Viewing and Recognizing Patterns. Vision Research (11) 929 -942.
Noudoost, B., Chang, M.H., Steinmetz, N.A., & Moore, T. (2010). Top-Down Control of Visual Attention. Current Opinion in Neurobiology (20) 183-190.
Nussbaum, M.C. (1978). The Role of Phantasia in Aristotle's Explanation of Action. In her Aristotle's De Motu Animalium: Text with Translation, Commentary, and Interpretative Essays. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
O’Brien, G. & Opie, J. (2001). Sins of Omission and Commission. Behavoral and Brain Sciences (24) 997-998.
O'Connor, K.P. & Aardema, F. (2005). The Imagination: Cognitive, Pre-cognitive, and Meta-cognitive Aspects. Consciousness and Cognition (14 #2) 233-256.
Ognibene, D., Pezzulo, G., & Baldassare, G. (2010). Learning to Look in Different Environments: An Active-Vision Model Which Learns and Readapts Visual Routines. In S. Doncieux, B. Girard, A. Guillot, J. Hallam, J.-A. Meyer, & J.-B. Mouret (Eds.), From Animals to Animats 11: Proceedings, 11th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (pp. 199-210). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.
Oliva, A., Torralba, A., Castelhano, M.S., & Henderson, J.M. (2003). Top-down Control of Visual Attention in Object Detection. In Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing Vol. I (pp. 253-256). Online: http://psyc.queensu.ca/faculty/castelhano/OlivaetalICIP2003.pdf
O'Regan, J. K. (1992). Solving the "Real" Mysteries of Visual Perception: The World as an Outside Memory. Canadian Journal of Psychology (46) 461-488.
O'Regan, J.K. (2010). Explaining What People Say about Sensory Qualia. In N. Gangopadhyay, M. Madary, & F. Spicer (Eds.), Perception, Action, and Consciousness: Sensorimotor Dynamics and Two Visual Systems (pp. 31-50). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
O’Regan, J.K. (2011). Why Red Doesn't Sound like a Bell: Understanding the Feel of Consciousness. New York: Oxford University Press.
O'Regan, J.K., Myin, E., & Noë, A. (2005). Skill, Corporality and Alerting Capacity in an Account of Sensory Consciousness. Progress in Brain Research (150) 55-68.
O'Regan, J. K., & Noë, A. (2001a). A Sensorimotor Account of Vision and Visual Consciousness. Behavoral and Brain Sciences (24) 939-1031.
O’Regan, J.K. and Noë, A. (2001b) What it Is like to See: A Sensorimotor Theory of Perceptual Experience. Synthese (129 #1) 79-103.
Orne, M.T. (1962). On The Social Psychology of the Psychological Experiment: With Particular Reference to Demand Characteristics and their Implications. American Psychologist (17) 776-783.
Oster, G. (1970). Phosphenes. Scientific American (222 #2, February 1970) 82-87.
Oswald, I. 1957 After-Images from Retina and Brain. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (9) 88-100.
Page, M.P.A. (2006). What Can’t Functional Neuroimaging Tell the Cognitive Psychologist? Cortex (42) 428-443.
Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and Verbal Processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. (Republished in 1979 – Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.)
Paivio, A. (1983). The Empirical Case for Dual Coding. In J.C. Yuille (Ed.), Imagery, Memory and Cognition: Essays in Honour of Allan Paivio. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.
Paivio, A. (1986). Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. New York: Oxford University Press.
Paivio, A. (1991). Dual Coding Theory: Retrospect and Current Status. Canadian Journal of Psychology (45) 255-287.
Paivio, A. (2007). Mind and Its Evolution: A Dual Coding Theoretical Approach. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Paivio, A. & Harshman, R. (1983). Factor Analysis of a Questionnaire on Imagery and Verbal Habits and Skills. Canadian Journal of Psychology (37) 461-483.
Palmer, S.E. (1977). Hierarchical Structure in Perceptual Representation. Cognitive Psychology (9) 441-474.
Pascual-Leone, A. & Walsh, V. (2001). Fast Backprojections from the Motion to the Primary Visual Area Necessary for Visual Awareness. Science (292) 10-12.
Perkins, B.R. & Rouanzoin, C.C. (2002). A Critical Evaluation of Current Views Regarding Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): Clarifying Points of Confusion. Journal of Clinical Psychology (58) 77-97.
Perry, H.M. (1939). The Relative Efficiency of Actual and Imaginary Practice in Five Selected Tasks. Archives of Psychology (#243).
Peterson, M.A., Kihlstrom, J.F., Rose, P.M., & Glisky, M.L. (1992). Mental Images Can Be Ambiguous: Reconstruals and Reference Frame Reversals. Memory and Cognition (20), 107-123.
Pockett, S. (2000). The Nature of Consciousness: A Hypothesis. Lincoln, NE: Writers Club Press.
Pockett, S. (2002). Difficulties with the Electromagnetic Field Theory of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies (9 #4) 51-56.
Pockett, S. (2007). Difficulties with the Electromagnetic Field Theory of Consciousness: An Update. NeuroQuantology (5 #3) 271-275.
Poldrack, R.A. & Mumford, J.A. (2009). Independence in ROI Analysis: Where Is the Voodoo? Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience (4 #2) 208-213.
Poltrock, S.E., & Agnoli, F. (1986). Are Spatial Visualisation Ability and Visual Imagery Ability Equivalent? In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, Vol. 3 (pp. 255–296). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Poltrock, S.E., & Brown, P. (1984). Individual Differences in Visual Imagery and Spatial Ability. Intelligence (8) 93-138.
Porter, J., Craven, B., Khan, R. M., Chang, S., Kang, I., Judkewitz, B., Volpe, J., Settles, G. & Sobel. N. (2007). Mechanisms of Scent-tracking in Humans. Nature: Neuroscience (10 #1) 27-29.
Postle, B.R., Idzikowski, C., Della Sala, S., Logie, R.H., & Baddeley, A.D. (2006). The Selective Disruption of Spatial Working Memory by Eye Movements. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (59) 100-120.
Power, K., McGoldrick, T., Brown, K., Buchanan, R., Sharp, D., Swanson, V., & Karatzias, A. (2002). A Controlled Comparison of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Versus Exposure Plus Cognitive Restructuring Versus Waiting List in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy (9 #5) 299-318.
Prinz, J.J. (2002). Furnishing the Mind: Concepts and their Perceptual Basis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Prinz, J. (2008). Is Consciousness Embodied? In P. Robbins & M. Aydede (Eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition (pp. 419-436). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Putnam, H. (1975). Mind, Language and Reality: Philosophical Papers, Volume 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pylyshyn, Z.W. (1973). What the Mind's Eye Tells the Mind's Brain: A Critique of Mental Imagery. Psychological Bulletin (80) 1-25.
Pylyshyn, Z.W. (1978). Imagery and Artificial Intelligence. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science (9) 19-55.
Pylyshyn, Z.W. (1981). The Imagery Debate: Analogue Media Versus Tacit Knowledge. Psychological Review (88) 16-45.
Pylyshyn, Z.W. (1984). Computation and Cognition: Toward a Foundation for Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Pylyshyn, Z.W. (2002). Mental Imagery: In Search of a Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences (25) 157-182 (-237 including commentaries and reply).
Pylyshyn, Z.W. (2003a). Seeing and Visualizing: It's Not What You Think. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Pylyshyn, Z.W. (2003b). Return of the Mental Image: Are There Pictures in the Brain? Trends in Cognitive Sciences (7) 113-118.
Pylyshyn, Z.W. (2003c). Explaining Mental Imagery: Now You See It, Now You Don’t (Reply to Kosslyn et al.). Trends in Cognitive Sciences (7, #3) 111-112.
Pylyshyn, Z.W. (2004). Mental Imagery. In R.L. Gregory (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pylyshyn, Z.W. (2007). Things and Places: How the Mind Connects with the World. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Ragni, M., Fangmeier, T., Bittner, A., & Konieczny, L. (2009). Incremental Model Construction: Eye-Movements Reflect Mental Representations and Operations – Even If There Is Nothing to Look At. In N. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings, 31st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. Online: http://184.108.40.206/CogSci09/papers/666/index.html
Ramachandran, V.S. (1990). Visual Perception in People and Machines. In A. Blake & T. Troscianko (Eds.), AI and the Eye. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley.
Ramachandran, V.S. & Hirstein, W. (1997). Three Laws of Qualia: What Neurology Tells Us about the Biological Functions of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies (4) 429-457.
Rasolzadeh, B., Björkman, M., Huebner, K., & Kragic, D. (2010). An Active Vision System for Detecting, Fixating and Manipulating Objects in the Real World. International Journal of Robotics Research (29 #2-3) 133-154.
Reddy, L., Tsuchiya, N., & Serre, T. (2010). Reading the Mind's Eye: Decoding Category Information During Mental Imagery. NeuroImage (50 #2) 818-825.
Reed, S.K. (1974). Structural Descriptions and The Limitations of Visual Imagery. Memory and Cognition (2) 329-336.
Rees, D.A. (1971). Aristotle's Treatment of Phantasia. In J.P. Anton & G.L. Kustas (Eds.) Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy (pp. 491-504). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Rees, G., Krieman, G., & Koch, C. (2002). Neural Correlates of Consciousness in Humans. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience (3) 261-270.
Rees, G., Wojciulik, E., Clarke, K., Husain, M., Frith, C., & Driver, J. (2000). Unconscious Activation of Visual Cortex in the Damaged Right Hemisphere of a Parietal Patient with Extinction. Brain (123) 1624-1633.
Rehm, L.P. (1973). Relationships among Measures of Visual Imagery. Behaviour Research and Therapy (11) 265-270.
Reisberg, D. & Chambers, D. (1991). Neither Pictures Nor Propositions: What Can We Learn From a Mental Image? Canadian Journal of Psychology (45) 336-352.
Reisberg, D., Culver, L.C., Heuer, F., & Fischman, D. (1986). Visual Memory: When Imagery Vividness Makes a Difference. Journal of Mental Imagery (10) 51-74.
Repérant, J., Miceli, D., Vesselkin, N.P., & Molotchnikoff, S. (1989). The Centrifugal Visual System of Vertebrates: A Century Old Search Reviewed. International Review of Cytology (118) 115-171.
Reynolds, J.H. & Chelazzi, L. (2004). Attentional Modulation of Visual Processing. Annual Review of Neuroscience (27) 611-647.
Ribot, T. (1889). Psychologie de L'Attention. Paris: Alcan. (Translated from the French as: The Psychology of Attention. Chicago: Open Court, 1903.)
Ribot, T. (1900). Essai sur L'Imagination Créatrice. Paris: Alcan. (Translated from the French by A.H.N. Baron as: Essay on the Creative Imagination. Chicago: Open Court, 1906.)
Richardson, A. (1967a). Mental Practice: A Review and Discussion, Part I. Research Quarterly (38) 95-107.
Richardson, A. (1967b). Mental Practice: A Review and Discussion, Part II. Research Quarterly (38) 263-273.
Richardson, A. (1969). Mental Imagery. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Richardson, A. (1977). The Meaning and Measurement of Memory Imagery. British Journal of Psychology (68) 29-43.
Richardson, D.C. & Spivey, M.J. (2004). Eye Tracking. In G.E. Wnek and G.L. Bowlin (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (pp. 568-582). New York: Marcel Dekker.
Richardson, J.T.E. (1980). Mental Imagery and Human Memory. London: Macmillan.
Richardson, J.T.E. (1999). Imagery. Psychology Press: Hove, U.K.
Riddoch, M.J. (1990). Loss of Visual Imagery: A Generation Deficit. Cognitive Neuropsychology (7) 249-273.
Rode, G., Cotton, F., Revol, P., Jacquin-Courtois, S., Rossetti, Y., & Bartolomeo, P. (2010). Representation and Disconnection in Imaginal Neglect. Neuropsychologia (48) 2903-2911.
Rode, G., Revol, P., Rossetti, Y., Boisson, D., & Bartolomeo, P. (2007). Looking While Imagining: The Influence of Visual Input on Representational Neglect. Neurology (68) 432-437.
Rode, G., Rossetti, Y., Perenin, M.-T., & Boisson, D. (2004). Geographic Information Has to Be Spatialised to Be Neglected: A Representational Neglect Case. Cortex (40) 391-397.
Rodenburg, R., Benjamin, A., de Roos, C., Meijer, A.M., & Stams, G.J. (2009). Efficacy of EMDR in Children: A Meta-Analysis. Clinical Psychology Review (29) 599-606.
Roelfsema, P.R. (2005). Elemental Operations in Vision. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (9, #5) 226-233.
Roelfsema, P.R., Lamme, V.A.F., & Spekreijse, H. (2000). The Implementation of Visual Routines. Vision Research (40) 1385-1411.
Roffwarg, H., Dement, W., Muzio, J., & Fisher, C. (1962). Dream Imagery: Relationship to Rapid Eye Movements. Archives of General Psychiatry (7) 235-238.
Róka, A., Csapó, A., Reskó, B., & Baranyi, P. (2007a). Edge Detection Model Based on Involuntary Tremors and Drifts of the Eye. Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics (11 #6) 648-654.
Róka, A., Csapó, A., Reskó, B., & Baranyi P. (2007b). Edge Detection Model Based on Involuntary Eye Movements of the Eye-Retina System. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica (4 #1) 31-46.
Roland, P.E. & Gulyàs B. (1994). Visual Imagery and Visual Representation. Trends in Neuroscience (17) 281-286.
Rolfs, M. (2009). Microsaccades: Small Steps on a Long Way. Vision Research (49) 2415-2441.
Roorda, A. & Williams, D.R. (1999). The Arrangement of the Three Cone Classes in the Living Human Eye. Nature (397 #6719) 520-522.
Rosa, M.G.P. (2002). Visual Maps in the Adult Primate Cerebral Cortex: Some Implications for Brain Development and Evolution. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research (35 #12): 485-1498.
Rosenthal, R. (2002). Experimenter and Clinician Effects in Scientific Inquiry and Clinical Practice. Prevention & Treatment (5) Article 38.
Rosnow, R. L. (2002). The Nature and Role of Demand Characteristics in Scientific Inquiry. Prevention & Treatment (5) Article 37.
Ross, P.W. (2001). The Location Problem for Color Subjectivism. Consciousness and Cognition (10) 42-58.
Ross, W.D. (1923). Aristotle. London: Methuen.
Rothkopf, C.A., Ballard, D.H., & Hayhoe, M.H. (2007). Task and Context Determine Where You Look. Journal of Vision (7 #14:16) 1-20. Open access online journal, URL: http://journalofvision.org/7/14/16/
Rowlands, M. (2006a). Body Language: Representation in Action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Rowlands, M. (2006b). Sensorimotor Activity. Psyche (12, #1). Online publication, URL: http://www.theassc.org/files/assc/2628.pdf
Ruggieri, V. (1999). The Running Horse Stops: The Hypothetical Role of the Eyes in Imagery of Movement. Perceptual and Motor Skills (89) 1088-1092.
Ruggieri, V. & Alfieri, G. (1992). The Eyes in Imagery and Perceptual Processes: First Remarks. Perceptual and Motor Skills (75) 287-290.
Runeson, S. (1977). On the Possibility of "Smart" Perceptual Mechanisms. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology (18) 172-179.
Ryan, E.D. & Simons, J. (1982). Efficacy of Mental Imagery in Enhancing Mental Rehearsal of Motor Skills. Journal of Sport Psychology (4) 41-51.
Ryle, G. (1949). The Concept of Mind. London: Hutchinson.
Saalmann, Y.B. & Kastner, S. (2009). Gain Control in the Visual Thalamus During Perception and Cognition. Current Opinion in Neurobiology (19 #4) 408- 414.
Sackett, R.S. (1934). The Influence of Symbolic Rehearsal upon the Retention of a Maze Habit. Journal of General Psychology (10) 376-397.
Saddoris, M.P., Holland, P.C., & Gallagher, M. (2009). Associatively Learned Representations of Taste Outcomes Activate Taste-Encoding Neural Ensembles in Gustatory Cortex. Journal of Neuroscience (29 #49) 15386-15396.
Samara, Z., Elzinga, B.M., Slagter, H.A., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2011). Do Horizontal Saccadic Eye Movements Increase Interhemispheric Coherence? Investigation of a Hypothesized Neural Mechanism Underlying EMDR. Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation (2) Article 4. Online publication: http://www.frontiersin.org/Neuropsychiatric_Imaging_and_Stimulation/10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00004/ DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00004
Sarbin, T.R. (1972). Imagination as Muted Role Taking. In P.W. Sheehan (Ed.), The Function and Nature of Imagery (pp. 333-354). Academic Press. New York
Sarbin, T.R. & Juhasz, J.B. (1970). Toward a Theory of Imagination. Journal of Personality (38) 52-76.
Sarbin, T.R., Taft, R., & Bailey, D.E. (1960). Clinical Inference and Cognitive Theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Sartre, J.-P. (1940). L'imaginaire. (Translated from the French, by B. Frechtman, as The Psychology of Imagination , New York: Philosophical Library, 1948.)
Scheerer, E. (1984). Motor Theories of Cognitive Structure: A Historical Review. In W.Prinz & A.F. Sanders (Eds.), Cognition and Motor Processes (pp. 77-98). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
Schienle, A., Schäfer, A., & Vaitl, D. (2008). Individual Differences in Disgust Imagery: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. NeuroReport (19 #5) 527-530.
Schiff, S.K., Bunney, W.E., & Freedman, D.X. (1961). A Study of Ocular Movements in Hypnotically Induced Dreams. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (133) 59-68.
Schira, M.M., Wade, A.R., & Tyler, C.W. (2007). Two-Dimensional Mapping of the Central and Parafoveal Visual Field to Human Visual Cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology (97) 4284-4295.
Schofield, M. (1978). Aristotle on the Imagination. In G.E.R. Lloyd & G.E.L. Owen (Eds.) Aristotle on the Mind and the Senses (pp. 99-140). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schott, G.D. (2007). Exploring the Visual Hallucinations of Migraine Aura: The Tacit Contribution of Illustration. Brain (130) 1690-1703.
Schroeder, C.E., Wilson, D.A., Radman, T., Scharfman, H. & Lakatos, P. (2010). Dynamics of Active Sensing and Perceptual Selection. Current Opinion in Neurobiology (20 #2) 172-176.
Schubert, S. & Lee, C.W. (2009). Adult PTSD and Its Treatment With EMDR: A Review of Controversies, Evidence, and Theoretical Knowledge. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research (3 #3) 117-132.
Schwitzgebel, E. (2002). How Well do we Know our Own Conscious Experience? The Case of Visual Imagery. Journal of Consciousness Studies (9, #5-6) 35-53.
Schwitzgebel, E. (2008). The Unreliability of Naive Introspection. Philosophical Review (117 #2) 245-273.
Schwitzgebel, E. (2011). Perplexities of Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Searle, J.R. (1980a). Minds, Brains and Programs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences (3) 417-424.
Searle, J.R. (1980b). The Intentionality of Intention and Action. Cognitive Science (4) 47-70
Searle, J.R. (1984). Minds, Brains and Science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Searle, J.R. (1992). The Rediscovery of the Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Secchi, D. & Bardone, E. (2009). Super-Docility in Organizations: An Evolutionary Model. International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior (12 #3).
Seekircher, A., Laue, T., & Röfer, T. (2011). Entropy-Based Active Vision for a Humanoid Soccer Robot. In J. Ruiz-del-Solar, E. Chown, & P. Plöger (Eds.), RoboCup 2010: Robot Soccer World Cup XIV (pp.1-12). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.
Serences, J.T. & Boynton, G.M. (2007). Feature-Based Attentional Modulations in the Absence of Direct Visual Stimulation. Neuron (55) 301-312.
Servos P. & Goodale M.A. (1995). Preserved Visual Imagery in Visual Form Agnosia. Neuropsychologia (33 #11) 1383-1394.
Shannon, C.E. (1948). A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell Systems Technical Journal (27) 379-423, 623-656.
Shapiro, F. (1989a). Efficacy of the Eye Movement Desensitization Processing in the Treatment of Traumatic Memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress (2) 199-223.
Shapiro, F. (1989b). Eye Movement Desensitization Procedure: A New Treatment for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry (20) 211- 217.
Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: Basic Principles, Protocols, and Procedures (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press
Shapiro, F., & Forrest, M.S. (1997). EMDR: The Breakthrough Therapy for Overcoming Anxiety, Stress, and Trauma. New York: Basic Books.
Sharpley, C.F., Montgomery, I.M., & Scalzo, L.A. (1996). Comparative Efficacy of EMDR and Alternative Procedures in Reducing the Vividness of Mental Images. Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy (25) 37-42.
Sheehan, P.W. (1967). A Shortened Version of the Betts' Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery. Journal of Clinical Psychology (23) 386-389.
Sheehan, P. W., & Neisser, U. (1969). Some Variables Affecting the Vividness of Imagery in Recall. British Journal of Psychology (60) 71-80.
Sheikh, A.A. & Korn, E.R. (Eds.) (1994). Imagery in Sports and Physical Performance. Amityville, NY: Baywood.
Shepard, R.N. (1975). Form, Formation, and Transformation of Internal Representations. In R.L. Solso (Ed.) Information Processing and Cognition: the Loyola Symposium. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Shepard, R.N. (1978). The Mental Image. American Psychologist (33) 125-137.
Shepard, R.N. (1981). Psychophysical Complementarity. In M. Kubovy & J.R. Pomerantz (Eds.) Perceptual Organization. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Shepard, R.N. (1984). Ecological Restraints on Internal Representation. Psychological Review (91) 417-447.
Shepard, R.N. & Chipman, S. (1970). Second Order Isomorphism of Internal Representations: Shapes of States. Cognitive Psychology (1) 1-17.
Shepard, R.N., & Cooper, L.A. (1982). Mental Images and Their Transformations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Shepard, R.N. & Metzler, J. (1971). Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects. Science (171) 701-703.
Shepherd, J., Stein, K., & Milne, R. (2000). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of an Emerging Therapy. Psychological Medicine (30 #4) 863-871.
Short, S.E., Ross-Stewart, L., & Monsma, E.V. (2006). Onwards with the Evolution of Imagery Research in Sport Psychology. Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology (8 #3). Online publication: http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol8Iss3/ImageryResearch.htm
Shorter, J.M. (1952). Imagination. Mind (61) 528-542.
Silvanto, J., Cowey, A., Lavie, N., & Walsh, V. (2005). Striate Cortex (V1) Activity Gates Awareness of Motion. Nature Neuroscience (8) 143-144. doi:10.1038/nn1379
Sima, J.F. (2011). The Nature of Mental Images - An Integrative Computational Theory. In L. Carlson, C. Hoelscher, & T.F. Shipley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. Online: http://mindmodeling.org/cogsci2011/papers/0655/index.html
Sima, J.F. & Freksa, C. (2012). Towards Computational Cognitive Modeling of Mental Imagery. KI - Künstliche Intelligenz (26 #3) 261-267.
Sima, J.F., Lindner, M., Schultheis, H., & Barkowsky, T. (2010). Eye Movements Reflect Reasoning with Mental Images but Not with Mental Models in Orientation Knowledge Tasks. In C. Hölscher, T.F. Shipley, M. O. Belardinelli, J.A. Bateman, & N.S. Newcombe (Eds.), Spatial Cognition VII (pp. 248-261). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.
Simon, H.A. (1972). What is Visual Imagery? An Information Processing Interpretation. In L.W. Gregg (Ed.), Cognition in Learning and Memory. New York: Wiley.
Singer, J.L., & Antrobus, J.S. (1965). Eye Movements During Fantasies: Imagining and Suppressing Fantasies. Archives of General Psychiatry (12) 71-76.
Sirotin, Y.B. & Das, A. (2009). Anticipatory Haemodynamic Signals in Sensory Cortex Not Predicted by Local Neuronal Activity. Nature (457 #7228) 475-479.
Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: The Free Press.
Skinner, B.F. (1974). About Behaviorism. New York: Knopf.
Slade, P.D. & Bentall, R.P. (1988). Sensory Deception: A Scientific Analysis of Hallucination. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Slezak, P. (1991). Can Images be Rotated and Inspected? A Test of the Pictorial Medium Theory. In Proceedings, Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 55-60). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Slezak, P. (1992). When Can Visual Images Be Re-Interpreted? Non-Chronometric Tests of Pictorialism. In Proceedings, Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 124-129). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Slezak, P. (1995). The “Philosophical” Case Against Visual Imagery. In P. Slezak, T. Caelli, & R. Clark (Eds.), Perspectives on Cognitive Science: Theories, Experiments and Foundations. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Smith, A.M., Gosselin, G. & Houde, B. (2002). Deployment of Fingertip Forces in Tactile Exploration. Experimental Brain Research (147) 209-218.
Smith, G. & Gero, J.S. (2000). The Autonomous, Rational Design Agent. In H. Fujii (Ed.), Workshop on Situatedness in Design, Artificial Intelligence in Design’00 (pp. 19-23). Worcester, MA.
Smith, G. & Gero, J.S. (2001). Situated Design Interpretation Using a Configuration of Actor
Capabilities. In J.S. Gero, S. Chase, & M.A. Rosenman (Eds.). CAADRIA 2001 (pp. 15-24). Sydney, Australia: Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney.
Sommer, R. (1978). The Mind's Eye. New York: Delacorte Press.
Sorabji, R. (1972). Aristotle on Memory. Providence, RI: Brown University Press.
Sperry, R.W. (1952). Neurology and the Mind-Brain Problem. American Scientist (40) 291-312.
Spivey, M.J. & Geng J.J. (2001). Oculomotor Mechanisms Activated by Imagery and Memory: Eye Movements to Absent Objects. Psychological Research (65) 235-241.
Spivey, M.J., Tyler, M., Richardson, D.C., & Young, E. (2000). Eye Movements During Comprehension of Spoken Scene Descriptions. In L. Gleitman & A. Joshi (Eds.),
Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 487-492). Mawhah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sprenger, A., Lappe-Osthege, M., Talamo, S., Gais, S., Kimmig, H., & Helmchen, C. (2010). Eye Movements During REM Sleep and Imagination of Visual Scenes. Neuroreport (21 #1) 45-49.
Stapleton, J.R., Lavine, M.L., Nicolelis, M.A., & Simon, S.A. (2007). Ensembles of Gustatory Cortical Neurons Anticipate and Discriminate Between Tastants in a Single Lick. Frontiers in Neuroscience (1) 161-174. Online journal, URL: http://www.frontiersin.org/neuroscience/10.3389/neuro.01.1.1.012.2007/abstract DOI: 10.3389/neuro.01.1.1.012.2007
Stark, L., & Ellis, S. R. (1981). Scanpaths Revisited: Cognitive Models Direct Active Looking. In D. F. Fisher, R. A. Monty & J. W. Senders (Eds.), Eye Movements: Cognition and Visual Perception (pp. 193-226). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Start, K.B. & Richardson, A. (1964). Imagery and Mental Practice. British Journal of Educational Psychology (34) 280-284.
Stokes, M., Thompson, R., Cusack, R., & Duncan, J. (2009). Top-Down Activation of Shape-Specific Population Codes in Visual Cortex during Mental Imagery. Journal of Neuroscience (29 #5) 1565-1572.
Stoller, P. (2009). The Power of the Between: An Anthropological Odyssey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Stucki, D. J., & Pollack, J. B. (1992). Fractal (Reconstructive Analogue) Memory. In Proceedings, Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 118-123). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Suzuki, M. & Floreano, D. (2008). Enactive Robot Vision. Adaptive Behavior (16 #2-3) 122-128.
Swain, M. J., & Stricker, M. A. (1993). Promising Directions in Active Vision. International Journal of Computer Vision (11) 109-126.
Symonds, C. & Mackenzie, I. (1957). Bilateral Loss of Vision from Cerebral Infarction. Brain (80) 415-455.
Szpunar, K.K., Watson, J.M., & McDermott, K.B. (2007). Neural Substrates of Envisioning the Future. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. (104 #2) 642-647.
Taylor, S., Thordarson, D., Maxfield, L., Federoff, I., Lovell, K., & Ogrodniczuk, J. (2003). Comparative Efficacy, Speed, and Adverse Effects of Three PTSD Treatments: Exposure Therapy, EMDR, and Relaxation Training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (71 #2) 330-338.
Tehovnik, E.J., Slocum, W.M., Carvey, C.E., & Schiller P.H. (2005). Phosphene Induction and the Generation of Saccadic Eye Movements by Striate Cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology (93 #1) 1-19. doi:10.1152/jn.00736.2004
Thomas, N.J.T. (1987). The Psychology of Perception, Imagination and Mental Representation, and Twentieth Century Philosophies of Science. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Leeds, Leeds, U.K. (A.S.L.I.B. Index to Theses 37-iii No. 37-4561). Online: http://www.imagery-imagination.com/thesis.htm
Thomas, N.J.T. (1989). Experience and Theory as Determinants of Attitudes toward Mental Representation: The Case of Knight Dunlap and the Vanishing Images of J.B. Watson. American Journal of Psychology (102) 395-412. Online: http://www.imagery-imagination.com/dun-wat.htm
Thomas, N.J.T. (1997). What Does Implicit Cognition Tell Us about Consciousness? Report on the First Conference of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies (4) 393-396. Online: http://www.imagery-imagination.com/assc1cr.htm
Thomas, N.J.T. (1999a). Imagination. In C. Eliasmith & Eric Hochstein (Eds.), Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind. Published online at https://sites.google.com/site/minddict/imagination
Thomas, N.J.T. (1999b). Are Theories of Imagery Theories of Imagination? An Active Perception Approach to Conscious Mental Content. Cognitive Science (23) 207-245. Online: http://www.imagery-imagination.com/im-im/im-im.htm
Thomas, N.J.T. (2001). Color Realism: Toward a Solution to the "Hard Problem." Consciousness and Cognition (10) 140-145. Online: http://www.imagery-imagination.com/col-real.htm
Thomas, N.J.T. (2002a). The False Dichotomy of Imagery. Behavioral and Brain Sciences (25) 211. Online: http://www.imagery-imagination.com/pyl-com.htm
Thomas, N.J.T. (2002b). A Note on "Schema" and "Image Schema". Unpublished. Available online at: http://www.imagery-imagination.com/schemata.htm
Thomas, N.J.T. (2003). Mental Imagery, Philosophical Issues About. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Volume 2, pp. 1147-1153). London: Nature Publishing/Macmillan. (Republished in print and online in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons Inc. of Hoboken, NJ.) Preprint available online: http://www.imagery-imagination.com/mipia.htm
Thomas, N.J.T. (2003-11). New Support for the Perceptual Activity Theory of Mental Imagery: An Ongoing Bibliographic Essay. Unpublished. Available online at: http://www.imagery-imagination.com/newsupa.htm (the currently available version may have been updated since 2011).
Thomas, N.J.T. (2006). Fantasi, Eliminatiisme og Bevidsthedens Forhistorie. Slagmark: Tidsskrift for Idéhistorie (46) 15-31. (In Danish, but an English version of an earlier draft is available online: http://www.imagery-imagination.com/im-c-abs.htm) Danish version: http://ojs.statsbiblioteket.dk/index.php/slagmark/article/viewFile/141/104
Thomas, N.J.T. (2010). Mental Imagery. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford, CA: CSLI. Online publication: The 2010 version that is referenced here is available at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/mental-imagery/. The most recently updated version (which may be the same, depending on when you access this) is at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mental-imagery/
Thomas, N.J.T. (forthcoming). The Multidimensional Spectrum of Imagination: Images, Dreams, Hallucinations, and Active, Imaginative Perception. Online draft: http://www.imagery-imagination.com/spectrum.htm
Thompson, E. (2005). Sensorimotor Subjectivity and the Enactive Approach to Experience. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences (4 #4) 407-427.
Thompson, E. (2007a). Look Again: Phenomenology and Mental Imagery. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences (6) 137-170.
Thompson, E. (2007b). Mind in Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Thompson, E. (2008). Representationalism and the Phenomenology of Mental Imagery. Synthese (160) 397-415.
Thompson, W.L., Kosslyn, S.M., Hoffman, M.S., & van Der Kooij, K. (2008). Inspecting Visual Mental Images: Can People "See" Implicit Properties as Easily in Imagery and Perception? Memory and Cognition (36 #5) 1024-1032.
Thorndike, E.L. (1914). Educational Psychology (Volume III). New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Titchener, E.B. (1909). Lectures on the Experimental Psychology of the Thought-Processes. New York: Macmillan.
Tootell, R.B., Switkes, E., Silverman, M.S., & Hamilton, S.L. (1988). Functional Anatomy of Macaque Striate Cortex. II. Retinotopic Organization. Journal of Neuroscience (8 #5) 1531-1568.
Totten, E. (1935). Eye Movement During Visual Imagery. Comparative Psychology Monographs (11 #53).
Trehub, A. (1977). Neuronal Models for Cognitive Processes: Networks for Learning, Perception and Imagination. Journal of Theoretical Biology (65) 141-169.
Troscianko, E. (2010). Kafkaesque Worlds in Real Time. Language and Literature (19) 151-171.
Tsuchiya, N. & Koch, C. (2005). Continuous Flash Suppression Reduces Negative Afterimages. Nature Neuroscience (8 #8) 1096-1101.
Tye, M. (1991). The Imagery Debate. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Ullman, S. (1984). Visual Routines. Cognition (18) 97-159.
Ureña, J. & Faber, P. (2010). Reviewing Imagery in Resemblance and Non-Resemblance Metaphors. Cognitive Linguistics (21 #1) 123-149.
Uttal, W.R. (2001). The New Phrenology: The Limits of Localizing Cognitive Processes in the Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
van den Hout, M.A., Engelhard, I.M., Rijkeboer, M.M., Koekebakker, J., Hornsveld, H., Leer, A., Toffolo, M.B.J., & Akse, N. (2011). EMDR: Eye Movements Superior to Beeps in Taxing Working Memory and Reducing Vividness of Recollections. Behaviour Research and Therapy (49 #2) 92-98.
van den Hout, M., Muris, P., Salemink, E., & Kindt, M. (2001). Autobiographical Memories Become less Vivid and Emotional after Eye Movements. British Journal of Clinical Psychology (40 #2) 121-130.
van der Kolk, B.A., Spinazzola, J., Blaustein, M.E., Hopper, J.W., Hopper, E.K., Korn, D.L., & Simpson, W.B. (2007). A Randomized Clinical Trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), Fluoxetine, and Pill Placebo in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Treatment Effects and Long-Term Maintenance. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (68) 37-46.
Van Etten, M. & Taylor, S. (1998). Comparative Efficacy of Treatments for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy (5) 126-144.
Van Orden, G.C. & Paap, K.R. (1997). Functional Neuroimages Fail to Discover Pieces of Mind in the Parts of the Brain. Philosophy of Science (64 #4) S85-S94.
Vandell, R.A., Davis, R.A., & Clugston, H.A. (1943). The Function of Mental Practice in the Acquisition of Motor Skills. Journal of General Psychology (29) 243-250.
Vartiainen, J., Liljeström, M., Koskinen, M., Renvall, H., & Salmelin, R. (2011). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Blood Oxygenation Level-dependent Signal and Magnetoencephalography Evoked Responses Yield Different Neural Functionality in Reading. Journal of Neuroscience (31 #3) 1048-58.
Vul, E., Harris, C., Winkielman, P., & Pashler, H. (2009a). Puzzlingly High Correlations in fMRI Studies of Emotion, Personality, and Social Cognition. Perspectives on Psychological Science (4 #3) 274-290.
Vul, E., Harris C., Winkielman, P., & Pashler, H. (2009b). Reply to comments on “Puzzlingly high correlations in fMRI studies of emotion, personality, and social cognition.” Perspectives on Psychological Science (4 #3) 319-324.
Wade, N.J. & Tatler, B.W. (2005). The Moving Tablet of the Eye: The Origins of Modern Eye Movement Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wallach, H. (1940). The Role of Head Movements and Vestibular and Visual Cues in Sound Localization. Journal of Experimental Psychology (27) 339-368.
Waller, D., Schweitzer, J.R., Brunton, J.R., & Knudson, R.M. (2012). A Century of Imagery Research: Reflections on Cheves Perky's Contribution to Our Understanding of Mental Imagery. American Journal of Psychology (125 #3) 291-305.
Waller, G. (2011). Walsingham and the English Imagination. Farnham, U.K.: Ashgate.
Wandell, B.A., Brewer, A.A., & Dougherty, R.F. (2005). Visual Field Map Clusters in Human Cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (B360 #1456) 693-707.
Wandell, B.A., Dumoulin, S.O., & Brewer, A.A. (2007). Visual Field Maps in Human Cortex. Neuron (56 #2) 366-383.
Ward, D. (2009). The ‘Agent’ in Magenta: Action, Color and Consciousness. Psyche (15 #1). Online publication, URL: http://www.theassc.org/files/assc/2574.pdf
Washburn, M.F. (1914). The Function of Incipient Motor Process. Psychological Review (21) 376-390. Available online: http://www.brocku.ca/MeadProject/Washburn/Washburn_1914.html
Washburn, M.F. (1916). Movement and Mental Imagery. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Washburn, M.F. (1932). Some Recollections. In C. Murchison (Ed.), A History of Psychology in Autobiography, Vol. 2 (pp. 333-358). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.Online: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Washburn/murchison.htm
Watson, G. (1982). Phantasia in Aristotle, De Anima 3.3. Classical Quarterly (32) 100-113.
Watson, G. (1988). Phantasia in Classical Thought. Galway, Eire: Galway University Press.
Watson, J.B. (1913a). Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It. Psychological Review (20) 158-177.
Watson, J.B. (1913b). Image and Affection in Behavior. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods (10) 421-428.
Weber, M.J. & Thompson-Schill, S.L. (2010). Functional Neuroimaging Can Support Causal Claims about Brain Function. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (22 #11) 2415-2416.
Wedin, M.V. (1988). Mind and Imagination in Aristotle. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Weisberg, D.S., Keil, F.C., Goodstein, J., Rawson, E., & Gray, J.R. (2008). The Seductive Allure of Neuroscience Explanations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (20, #3), 470-477.
Weiskrantz, L., Warrington, E.K., Sanders, M.D., & Marshall J. (1974). Visual Capacity in the Hemianopic Field Following a Restricted Occipital Ablation. Brain (97) 709-728.
White, A.R. (1990). The Language of Imagination. Oxford: Blackwell.
White, K. (1985). The Meaning of Phantasia in Aristotle's De Anima, III, 3-8. Dialogue (24) 483-505.
Wightman, F.L. & Kistler, D.J. (1999). Resolution of Front–Back Ambiguity in Spatial Hearing by Listener and Source Movement. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (105 #5) 2841-2853.
Wilson, G. & Shpall, S. (2012). Action. In E.N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2012 Edition). Stanford, CA: CSLI. Online publication: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2012/entries/action/
Wilson, H.R. (1997). A Neural Model of Foveal Light Adaptation and Afterimage Formation. Visual Neuroscience (14) 403-23.
Wooten, B. & Wald, G. (1973). Color-Vision Mechanisms in the Peripheral Retinas of Normal and Dichromatic Observers. Journal of General Physiology (61) 125-142.
Wraga, M. & Kosslyn, S.M. (2003). Imagery. In L. Nadel (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, (Vol. 2, pp. 466-470). London: Nature Publishing/Macmillan.
Wright, E. (1983). Inspecting Images. Philosophy (58) 57-72.
Yarbus, A.L. (1967). Eye Movements and Vision (translated from the Russian by B. Haigh). New York: Plenum Press.
Yolton, J.W. (1956). John Locke and the Way of Ideas. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Yolton, J.W. (1996). Perception and Reality: A History from Descartes to Kant. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Young, A. & van de Wal, C. (1996). Charcot's Case of Impaired Imagery. In C. Code, C.-W. Wallesch, Y. Joanette, & A.R Lecours (Eds.), Classic Cases in Neuropsychology (pp. 31-44). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Young, H.F., Bentall, R.P., Slade, P.D., & Dewey, M.E. (1987). The Role of Brief Instructions and Suggestibility in the Elicitation of Auditory and Visual Hallucinations in Normal and Psychiatric Subjects. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (175) 41-48.
Young, J.Z. (1978). Programs of the Brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zago, S., Corti, S., Bersano, A., Baron, P., Conti, G., Ballabio, E., Lanfranconi, S., Cinnante, C., Costa, A., Cappellari, A., & Bresolin, N. (2010). A Cortically Blind Patient With Preserved Visual Imagery. Cognitive & Behavioral Neurology (23 #1) 44-48.
Zelano, C., Bensafi, M., Porter, J., Mainland, J., Johnson, B., Bremner, E., Telles, C., Khan, R., & Sobel, N. (2005). Attentional Modulation in Human Primary Olfactory Cortex. Nature Neuroscience (8 #1) 114-120.
Zelano, C., Mohanty, A., & Gottfried, J.A. (2011). Olfactory Predictive Codes and Stimulus Templates in Piriform Cortex. Neuron (72) 178-187.
Zeman, A.Z.J., Della Sala, S., Torrens, L.A., Gountouna, V.-E., McGonigle, D.J., & Logie, R.H. (2010). Loss of Imagery Phenomenology with Intact Visuo-spatial Task Performance: a Case of 'Blind Imagination.' Neuropsychologia (48 #1) 145-155.
Zikmund, V. (1972). Physiological Correlates of Visual Imagery. In P.W. Sheehan (Ed.), The Function and Nature of Imagery (pp. 355-387). New York: Academic Press.
Return to Home Page:
Imagination, Mental Imagery, Consciousness, Cognition:
Science, Philosophy & History.